In subnetting there are 5 steps you need to take in order to be able to subnet. The very first step is to figure out what class your ip address is in. If the first octal in the IP adress is between 0-127 it is called A class. In the A class only the first octal is locked down while you get to play with the next 3 octals. The second class is called the B class. In this class if the first octal in the IP adress is 128-191 it is considered a class B. This locks down the first two octals and allowing you to play use the third and fourth to play with. The last class is a class C. In a c class C the first octal in the IP adress has to be between 192-223. In class C it locks down the first three octals and only allowing you play with the fourth and last octal. Some examples of these classes are 18.104.22.168 this would be a class A because first octal is between 0 and 127. 22.214.171.124 this would be a class B because the first octal is between 128 and 191. 126.96.36.199 this would be a Class C because the first octal is between 192 ans 223.
In this step the subnet mask can be both listed out or used by shorthand. By shorthand it will be shown like /10. This means that the first octal is locked down and they borrowed 2 bits from the second octal . /20 means the first 2 octals are locked down and thye borrowed 4 bits from the third octal. /29 means the first 3 octals are locked down and they borrowed 5 bits from the last octal. Each octal can only have a maximum of 8 bits. 255.192.0.0 is example of subnet mask which only the first octal is locked down and they borrwed 2 bits from the second octal. 255.255.192.0 this is example of the first two octals being locked down while they borrrowed 2 bits from the third octal. 255.255....
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...our network id is our lowest number we can have been 64 and 128. Network ID is 188.8.131.52 the first host is one bigger then the network so it would be 184.108.40.206. The last host is the last avaivable number and one less then the broadcast id. So the last host is 220.127.116.11 The broadcast is one more then the last host so it would be 18.104.22.168.
22.214.171.124 /19 is a class because its between 128 and 191. The first two octets are locked down because it is above 16. They borrowed three bits from the third octet. The block size would be 32 becuase 8 divided by 256 is 32. There are 8 different subnets because 19 minus 16 is 3 so 2 to the 3rd power is 8. 19 is 13 away from 32 to the amount of host would be 8192 minus 2 which is 8190. So 8190 per subnet. Network ID is 126.96.36.199 First host 188.8.131.52 last host 184.108.40.206 broadcast 220.127.116.11
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