Various professionals have been studied social problems such as race & gender discrimination, wage inequality, and Black women’s experiences in the labor market, and the results they found are mixed. Some researchers argue that the underlying cause of wage inequality is based on differences in individual preferences and skills (human capital), and difference in labor market position (occupation, industry, etc.) (Kim, 2002; McCall, 2001; Woody, 1992). Other researchers have found that the wage inequality is caused by race and gender discrimination “double/multiple jeopardy” (Evans & Herr, 1991; Sokoloff, 1992). Then there are researchers who are right in the middle, who argue that discrimination is a part of the cause of wage inequality but it is not necessarily the main factor (Browne & Misra, 2003). All the researchers seem to (generally) agree that Black women are affected by race and gender discr...
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...). Has the Race Penalty for Black Women Disappeared in the United States?. Feminist Economics, 8(2), 115.
Lapidus, J., & Figart, D. M. (1998). Remedying 'Unfair Acts': U.S. Pay Equity by Race and Gender. Feminist Economics, 4(3), 7-28.
McCall, L. (2001). Sources of Racial Wage Inequality in Metropolitan Labor Markets: Racial, Ethnic, and Gender Differences. American Sociological Review, 66(4), 520-541.
Rosenfeld, J., & Kleykamp, M. (2012). Organized Labor and Racial Wage Inequality in the United States. American Journal of Sociology, 117(5), 1460-1502.
Sokoloff, N. J. (1992). Black women and white women in the professions: Occupational segregation by race and gender, 1960-1980. New York. London: Routledge.
Woody, B. (1992). Black women in the workplace: Impacts of structural change in the economy. New York. Westport, Connecticut. London: Greenwood Press.
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