Table Of contents Pages
I. What is a Hotspot? 1
II. Hotspot Volcanism 1
III. What causes Hotspot Volcanoes? 2
IV. Examples and Locations of Hotspots 2
V. What is Tectonic plates? 3
VI. Movement of Tectonic plates Over time 4
VII. Super volcanoes 7
VIII. What makes a volcanoes super? 7
IX. Super volcanoes and Super eruptions 8
X. Super Volcanoes past and present 9-12
I.What is a Hotspot?
Hotspot is a region deep within the earth mantle from which heat rises through the process of convection. The heat causes the melting of rocks at the base of the lithosphere, where the brittle upper portion of the mantle meets the earth crust. The melted rocks known as magma in large quantities pushes through the cracks in the crust to form volcanoes which could erupted overtime.
There are places within the mantle where rocks melt to generate Magma. The presence of hot spots is inferred by Anomalous Volcanism. Mantle plumes are areas of hot, upwelling mantle. A hot spot develops above the plume. Magma generated by the hotspot rises through the rigid plates of the lithosphere and produces active volcanoes at the Earth 's surface.
Scientist have different theories of where hot spots form but the most recognized theory was framed by Canadian geophysicist J. Tuzo Wilson in 1963, it states that hot spot volcanoes are created by exceptionally hot areas fixed deep below the Earth’s mantle. Recen...
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...in in the year A.D. 181, with estimates of ash and magma reaching as high as 22 cubic miles. Today, there are plenty of signs of current volcanic activity in the form of hot springs and venting.
6. Aira Caldera
Aira Caldera is listed (or ranked) 6 on the list The World 's 6 Known Supervolcanoes Photo: Freebase/Public domain
One of the most recently troubling calderas in the world is the 150-square-mile Aira caldera in southern Japan, on the edge of which sits the city of Kagoshima. 22,000 years ago 14 cubic miles of material burped out of the ground and formed the Aira caldera, which is now largely Kagoshima Bay. That is equal to about 50 Mount St. Helens eruptions.
The Sakura-jima volcano, which forms part of the Aira caldera, has been active on and off for the past century and still causes earthquakes today, indicating that the caldera itself is far from sleeping.
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