Robert E. Parks and Ernest Burgess would lead the way in theorizing that the city was at the root of life’s social process. The city’s enclaves according to Parks brought about conflict forcing people to assimilate and associate with others causing cultural clashes that laid the framework of what many theorist would study as reason to crime (Lilly, Cullen, & Ball, 2011). The natural socialization process had been interrupted according to Parks similar to that of ecological structure found in nature and as such was seen as one of the factors that impacted human behavior. Burgess furthered the study by creating a diag...
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...of the time might have even been a necessary evil as Durkheim implied making it more likely for civil disobedience to subsequently arise out of this time period.
Akers, R. L., & Sellers, C. S. (2013). Criminological theories: introduction, evaluation, and application (Sixth ed.). New York: Oxford University Press.
Brym, R. J., & Lie, J. (2010). Sociology: your compass for a new world, the brief edition (Enhanced 2nd ed.). Belmont, California: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.
Jacoby, J. E., Severance, T. A., & Bruce, A. S. (2012). Classics of criminology (4th ed.). Long Grove, Ill.: Waveland Press.
Lilly, J. Robert, Francis T. Cullen, & Richard A. Ball. (2011). Criminological Theory: Context & Consequences (5th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA, USA: Sage Publications, Inc.
Weatherburn, D. (2001). What causes crime?. BOCSAR NSW Crime and Justice Bulletins, 11.
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