Western feminism started mainly emphasizing on women’s role in development during the 1970s what is known as the “Second Wave” of feminist movements. Ester Boserup, a Danish economist, analyzed development as an ideology that excluded women, and proposed alteration in looking at the established development processes, and policies in her book “Woman’s Role in Economic Development” in the 1970. Aguinaga et al (2013) mentions that Boserup’s book resulted to the first World Conference on Women, which the United Nations declared the next decade the “Decade of Women” and institutionalized women’s perspective as part of development on July 2, 1975 in Mexico. Until the 1970s, women had only been considered in development policies as submissive beneficiaries, as being mothers and housewives, while training, technology and finance were in the hands of men. The Western model became popular through development programs and the model focused on the home as a standard recipient unit and women were dependants, in charge of the home. More particularly the model considered men as breadwinners with a salaried job. Hence, the involvement of UN lead to including women in development areas and development related resources and lead to concepts like Women in Development” (WID), “Women and Development” (WAD) and “Gender and Development” (GAD).
In the “Women in Development” (WID) huge numbers of NGOs were involved, that were programmed so that women can gain access funds and be included as program beneficiaries in the development process. “Women and Development” (WAD) its roots in Marxist feminism and the theory of dependence, which believes that the fruit of development which the North or western world enjoys is the ...
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...ironmental destruction, but also by the complicity between those who hold local power - and try to carry out “development” - and the forces of global capital.
1) Bruno, J.P. , 2006-08-10 "Feminist Approaches to Development and the Critique to Western Feminist Paradigms" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association, Montreal Convention Center, Montreal, Quebec, Canada Online
2) Rai, S. 1998 "Engendered Development in a Global Age?" CSGR Working Paper No. 20/98, December 1998 from http://wrap.warwick.ac.uk/2105/1/WRAP_Rai_wp2098.pdf
3) Aguinaga,M., Lang,M., Mokrani,D., & Santillana, A., 2013 “Development Critiques and Alternatives: A Feminist Perspective” from http://www.tni.org/sites/www.tni.org/files/download/beyonddevelopment_critiques.pdf
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