With the help of metagenomic, that combines next-generation DNA sequencing and computational biology, we can track the microorganisms in our cities, with important public health implications.
Our body and every place we live in are populated with millions of microorganisms, which form a small ecosystem of bacteria, fungi, protists, and viruses. These microbes are for the majority harmless, a few can be beneficial, but others can bring diseases, be treatment-resistant, or even lethal. Tracking these microorganisms has become a fundamental goal of microbiologists as a way of managing public health, understanding and preventing disease outbreaks, or keeping bioterrorism under surveillance.
A microbial ecosystem never stays the same. Our daily interactions with other people and with the environment allow a continuous and rapid exchange of microbes from one person to another, or from one individual to a certain place and vice versa. This lets a microorganism group that inhabits a certain area to quickly morph according to the new strains that are brought in.
Scientists have started to monitor the very complex microbial ecosystems that live around us, relying on metagenomic, or “the study of genetic material recovered directly from environmental samples” (Wikipedia). Combining modern high-throughput sequencing techniques with computational biology has generated an effective method of surveying and classifying complex populations constituted by millions of microorganism. With next-generation sequencing, researchers have been able to detect the portions of genome that are characteristic and unique for each microorganism, matching each DNA sequence to the microbe that carries it. With computational biolo...
... middle of paper ...
...gastrointestinal tract (link to your other article) all perform tasks that are useful for the human host (e.g. they help with digestion, protect and maintain the pH balance of the skin and mucosae, etc.). It has been shown that people who live isolated carry more protective bacteria than the people in large urbanized areas, thereby showing better mechanisms of defense and significant health benefits.
One of the NYAS meeting final remarks highlighted the fact that, as scientists began to study microbial diversity, they also started to understand how much of it had already been lost, due to the large human migration and consequently to our habitats looking more and more the same. For this reason, a working document by the American Society of Microbiology defines the necessary research procedures to study and preserve microbial diversity as an important life resource.
Need Writing Help?
Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.Check your paper »
- Keep the Aspidistra Flying is one of George Orwell’s lesser known novels, but no less powerful. The most telling aspect of this novel is the characterization it provides. Keep the Aspidistra Flying is a novel about wealth and money. The main character, Gordon Comstock, has a constant struggle with money. Whether it is the possession or the absence of income, Gordon always struggles with money and its position in his life. The ultimate goal of the novel is presenting both the character’s philosophies on wealth, and also where they lie in the possession of it.... [tags: Keep the Aspidistra Flying Essays]
1241 words (3.5 pages)
- Introduction Immigration in this country has been a debated topic for years now and still we do not understand how to keep control of it as a country. Immigrants that came over from England wanted to start a new life free from ternary and oppression founded this wonderful nation of ours and still today we treat them as the enemy and refuse to help or accept them in to this land that we were allowed to stay in as well. The American government has portrayed a nasty picture that in all honesty is not necessary to give about immigrant.... [tags: Immigration to the United States]
1110 words (3.2 pages)
- Christmas is a special time of year that deserves to be remembered for its true meaning. Every year, Christmas becomes more and more commercialized and society forgets the origin of Christmas. It was not started with cookies, toys, and a fat man that delivers them, but instead it started with a humble inn where our Savior was born. The definition of Christmas is “a holiday on December 25 celebrating the birth of Jesus Christ.” Nowhere in that definition does it say anything about the outrageous pressure society has set on consumers to buy, buy, buy during the Christmas season.... [tags: Catholics, Methodists, Baptists]
1523 words (4.4 pages)
- INTRODUCTION The tiny organisms can not be seen by naked eye, or require the use of microscopes for their visualization are called microbes. These are studied under the branch of biology known as microbiology. Microbiology mainly involves the study of virus, fungi, parasites and bacteria. It also includes the study of immune system. Microbes are present in all parts of biosphere i.e soil, hotsprings, ocean floor, atmosphere and deep inside Earth’s crust. They are the first form of life on Earth.... [tags: e-coli, microbiology, probiotics]
1971 words (5.6 pages)
- Microbes in the Antarctic continent play an important role in the ecosystem function and sustainability. The variation in snow and ice covers in Antarctic continent markedly affects all ecological variables including the composition of microbial assemblages and their function (Quayle et al., 2002). Minor changes in the global climate could significantly affect the ice and snow melt regimen in this continent. Therefore the Antarctic ecosystem is considered to be a good ecological indicator for the global climate change (Walther et al., 2002).... [tags: Biology, Microorganism]
2251 words (6.4 pages)
- Two-hundred years, two-hundred years, is roughly the age of this great nation, it is relatively young, yet magnificently extraordinary. In two-hundred short years, the United States has become perhaps the greatest country on earth, not by sitting around and waiting, as it has been recently, but by acting and “shooting for the stars”. Mars is greatness waiting to happen, but the United States must once again grab the reins and head in that directions. The United States must keep pushing the boundaries, and it must keep the mindset of Paul Brandt when he said, “Don't tell me the sky's the limit when there are footprints on the moon” because there is not limit they must keep going they must put... [tags: shooting for Mars]
1519 words (4.3 pages)
- Within the United States Constitution, amendments one through ten referred to as the “Bill of Rights” contains amendment two which reads “A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed” (States, 1789). Despite this amendment, gun control still remains one of the most highly-debated issues in the United States. While the Constitution clearly states our right “to keep and bear Arms”, the gun control lobbyists continue to challenge this right by using the media to convey misleading stories on how guns by themselves are the problem.... [tags: argumentative, persuasive, gun control]
1353 words (3.9 pages)
- The World's Fight Against Microbes Many infectious diseases that were nearly eradicated from the industrialized world, and newly emerging diseases are now breaking out all over the world due to the misuse of medicines, such as antibiotics and antivirals, the destruction of our environment, and shortsighted political action and/or inaction. Viral hemorrhagic fevers are a group of diseases caused by viruses from four distinct families of viruses: filoviruses, arenaviruses, flaviviruses, and bunyaviruses.... [tags: Research Papers Science Biology Essays]
2231 words (6.4 pages)
- We MUST Keep Repeat Offenders in Jail Why do killers, rapists, and child molesters go free. A large portion of early release prisoners commit serious crimes after being released. In fact, "in a three year follow-up of 108,850 state prisoners released in 1983 from institutions in 11 states, within three years sixty percent of violent crime offenders were re-arrested. More than half of those charged with violent crimes were discharged within two years."(from Truth In Sentencing by James Wooton).... [tags: Sentencing Argument Argumentative]
573 words (1.6 pages)
- The Need For Independence in Everything That Rises Must Converge At some point in every parent-child relationship, the child gets to a point where he no longer wants to feel dependent upon his parent. In some cases, the child will emotionally detach himself from his parent in order to achieve this feeling of independence. In Flannery O'Connor's short story, Everything That Rises Must Converge, the relationship between Julian and his mother is a situation where the child, Julian, has tried to gain a feeling of independence by emotionally detaching himself from his mother.... [tags: Everything That Rises Must Converge Essays]
648 words (1.9 pages)