A major part of the world we live in, as well as our bodies, consist of water. Since it is a restricted source, the preservation of clean water and its adequate distribution throughout the planet is extremely vital. However, today 783 million people lack access to improved water sources. Many countries are still struggling to reach the water-related objectives of the Millennium Development Goals – threatening their advancement and ecological maintainability – and millions of people die each year from treatable waterborne diseases. The vast majority of people that are affected by this water scarcity also happen to live in the LEDCs, which only further worsens the problem due to the many other challenges that they face. The United Nations predicts that by 2030, the global population will need 40% more water in order to live comfortably, and this won’t be achievable if we don’t take crucial steps in expanding water preservation, distribution and security in LEDCs promptly.
Definition of Key Terms
Water scarcity occurs when the demand for potable water is higher than the available resources. It is both a natural and a human-made phenomenon; therefore there are two types of water scarcity differentiable, “physical” and “economic”. Physical water scarcity occurs when there is a lack of water resources because of natural reasons (e.g. climate change), also called water shortage. On the other hand, economic water scarcity is the result of mismanagement and unfair repartition of water resources: this can be due to the deficit of infrastructures to deliver water services or governance capacity.
There are multiple index that calculate water scarcity, however hydrologists mostly use the term “water stress”, whi...
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