In England and Wales, pertussis vaccination has been underway since 1957 with rising and falling trends in disease incidences over the years. But with the introduction of a more potent and less toxic acellular vaccine, the disease trend has changed. This vaccine has been used since in 2001, as a booster in the pre-school age group and has provided major protection in infants who are not eligible for vaccination (Armirthalingam et al., 2012). In addition, the accelerated schedule and high vaccine coverage has further lessened the general prevelance. However in April, 2012, there was a national outbreak majorly seen in adults and adolescents. This has led to new vaccination strategies such as: the temporary vaccination programme for expectant mothers as a way of protecting their unborn babies from the disease (Armirthalingam G, 2013).
Whooping cough is a highly contagious acute respiratory infection caused by an aerobic Gram negative non-sporulating encapsulated coco-bacillus bacterium, Borde...
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...en et al., 1996).
PT is the most important virulent factor expressed by B. pertussis and considered as the major cause of paroxysmal cough . It is linked to systemic infections such as: leukocytosis, hypoglycaemia and inflammatory responses seen in whooping cough patients. To understand the role of this toxin whooping cough infection, a mouse model has been used. It has been discovered that PT utilizes a retrograde transport pathway to the endoplasmic reticulum, gaining entry into the cytoplasm. As a result, it plays a major role in establishment of infection by targeting respiratory tract macrophages. Pt also delays release of neutrophils in early infection which neutrophils are vital in clearance of infection. It is also said to stimulate the production of Th-1 and Th-17 and inhibit the start of adaptive immunity thereby promoting whooping cough infection.
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- Whooping cough is a highly contagious and acute respiratory disease caused by an aerobic Gram negative non-sporulating encapsulated coco-bacillus bacterium, Bordetella pertussis. It is a strict human pathogen with no known animal or environmental reservoirs (Cotter and Miller, 2009) and transmitted through inhalation of bacteria-infected droplets. Consequently colonizing the ciliated cells of the bronchio-epithelium causing disease (Relman, D.A, 1995). Bordetella pertussis disease is characterised by mucus hyper-secretion, epithelial damage and pulmonary edema, with paroxysmal coughing that last for close for a month and post-tussive vomiting.... [tags: coco-bacillus bacterium]
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- Whooping cough is a highly contagious and acute respiratory disease caused by an aerobic Gram negative encapsulated coco-bacillus bacterium, Bordetella pertussis. It is a strict human pathogen with no known animal or environmental reservoirs and an air-borne disease. On inhalation, Bordetella pertussis colonizes the ciliated cells of the bronchio-epithelium to cause disease characterised by; epithelial damage, hyper mucus secretion, pulmonary edema and paroxysmal coughing. It is often accompanied by pneumonia, otitis edema, seizures, post-tussive vomiting and encephalopathy (1).... [tags: Role, Virulence Factors]
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