European Society During The Time of The Communist Manifesto

European Society During The Time of The Communist Manifesto

Length: 1339 words (3.8 double-spaced pages)

Rating: Excellent

Open Document

Essay Preview

More ↓
European Society During The Time of The Communist Manifesto


At the time the Communist Manifesto was written, European life had become far more urbanized than the previous years. During this period, society in Europe was undergoing great change. This great change arose from many influential factors. Among these factors, modern education, social structure of the bourgeoisie and laborers, and Marxism had immense effects on the everyday life of European citizens.

During the 1800’s, an integral step towards building a more modern society in Europe was the change in education. Formal learning and obligatory attendance began to take place in schools. The demand for children to attend school kept them out of the work place that they had inhabited for so many years. Another important aspect of schooling was the enforcement of teaching both sexes. The education of boys had been increasing for years, but at this point girls now had the opportunity to learn. As this change in education became more popular, literacy increased among young students. The ability to read and write became commonplace. The change in the way education was formatted increased the number of students willing to learn.

The increase in the number of students caused even more change in the structure of education in Europe. Older schools were forced to offer new curriculum to keep up with the times. New schools had to keep bringing in new classes for students to choose from. It became hard for old universities to adapt to this societal change. As the schools began to change, they eventually became more expensive and necessary. Those who attended or worked for a university became more respected and honored in society. Professors were among those of the elite class and were thought of as extremely well educated. Their place in society was far ahead of that of pre-university teachers. They had a high salary, educational assistants, and good vacation time. Before this change in education, some teachers were not much farther ahead of their students and did not have the allowances of the professors in the late 19th century. The educational system change in Europe in the 19th century greatly improved the life of children. There were more agencies to help families and widows with children. The middle class became more considerate of their children and these children began to populate a large portion of the world.

How to Cite this Page

MLA Citation:
"European Society During The Time of The Communist Manifesto." 123HelpMe.com. 24 Apr 2019
    <https://www.123helpme.com/view.asp?id=98179>.

Need Writing Help?

Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.

Check your paper »

Essay about Summary of the Communist Manifesto

- During the late 1840’s the idea of Communism had risen among the European powers. Communism is the idea of “the movement that aims to overthrow the capitalist order by revolutionary means and to establish a classless society in which all goods will be socially owned.”[1] During this era the idea of a movement advancing towards the highest form of social organization and togetherness rose within the European countries. “It [communism] settles the question of men and nature, existence and essence, freedom and necessity, individual and collectiveness.”[2] The Communist Manifesto reflects an attempt to explain the goals of Communism, as well as the theory underlying the communist movement....   [tags: Communist Manifesto Essays]

Research Papers
1180 words (3.4 pages)

Karl Marx's Communist Manifesto Essay

- Karl Marx's Communist Manifesto Faith and Reason Communism can seem very desirable. “It argued a world without war, in which the meek and the disadvantaged would share without distinction, the anticipated material and spiritual abundance generated by advanced.”(Gregor 19) This seems as though it would be the ideal form of government but in reality it is far from that. I will tell you about three of the most powerful communist countries of the twentieth century. The countries that I am talking about are the Soviet Union, or Russia as it is called today, the Peoples Republic of China, and Cuba....   [tags: Communist Manifesto Essays]

Research Papers
1355 words (3.9 pages)

Essay on Class Systems in a Communist Society

- Communism started around mid-nineteenth century. It is a political and economic belief. Communists work toward getting rid of any private owned property or any businesses that make a profit (“Communism”). Communists used the class system to try to work on eliminating any properties owned or profit’s made. But it didn’t work. In a communist society, the class system is the main reason why the society failed. Most communist parties are undemocratic and unbending in both spirit and practice. By the 1980s, more than one-fourth of the world has changed to communism beliefs....   [tags: political and economic belief]

Research Papers
807 words (2.3 pages)

Communist Manifesto Essay

- Manifesto of the Communist Party Political Ideologies The basic thought running through the manifesto is that all history has been a history of class struggles between the exploited and exploiting, between dominated and dominating classes at different stages of social evolution. (Slavery, Feudalism, Capitalism, Socialism, Communism). This struggle, however, is believed to have reached a stage where the exploited and oppressed class (the proletariat) can no longer liberate itself from the bourgeoisie....   [tags: Communist Manifesto Essays]

Research Papers
947 words (2.7 pages)

The American Anti Communist Crusade Essay

- The American anti-communist crusade, which followed the end of World War II, reignited a culture of suspicion and fear of communist ideology throughout US society. It began as a consequence of tensions that arose following the expansion of the Soviet state in the post-war world. It drew to an end in December 1954 as the head of the crusade, Senator Joseph McCarthy, was increasingly portrayed as a hysterical bully and therefore lost credibility. The US and USSR were diametrically opposed in relation to the political structure and underpinning values of each society....   [tags: World War II, Cold War, Soviet Union, Communism]

Research Papers
1553 words (4.4 pages)

Communist Memorialization Essay

- The rhetorical implications of Communist memorialization are intricate. Communism is both a personal (family) history and a collective (national/global) history. Each commemorative display in Hungary, Czech Republic, Poland and Germany are indicative to that particular country’s role in Communism; their historicity is mainly dependent upon social, political, and artistic ideals that transform from one generation to another. Which, may lend reason to, why and what each of these countries chose to memorialize from their past....   [tags: Communism]

Research Papers
521 words (1.5 pages)

Karl Marx And The Communist Manifesto Essay

- During the 19th Century, many European nations experienced were faced with numerous physical and social problems brought on by the industrial revolution and the decline of the feudal system. Population in the cities increased due to the fact that real estate and landowners were forcing peasants to move from the rural areas. Since cities were becoming heavily dense, violence and crime increase drastically while people were living in horrendous conditions and also working in horrific conditions. Laborers worked in factories in order for extremely low wages, just enough for their survival....   [tags: Karl Marx, Marxism, Working class, Bourgeoisie]

Research Papers
896 words (2.6 pages)

Essay on The Communist Manifesto : A Critique Of Political Pamphleteering

- The Communist Manifesto is a masterpiece of political pamphleteering — a work intended to inspire people to action, even revolutionary action. It builds upon descriptions of true social evils and offers a simple diagnosis and simple, if violent, remedies. In conjunction with Karl Marx’s subsequent writings, notably Das Kapital (1867, 1885, 1894; Capital: A Critique of Political Economy, 1886, 1907, 1909; better known as Das Kapital), it has inspired millions of people. Its rhetorical language is magnificent — if overblown and often misleading....   [tags: Marxism, Karl Marx, Communism, Capitalism]

Research Papers
1522 words (4.3 pages)

Post Communist Politics in Czech Republic Essays

- Post Communist Politics in Czech Republic Ten years after the revolution that brought down Communism in Czechoslovakia, the Czech Republic is still plagued by Leninist legacies that prevent it from transitioning fully into a successful liberal democracy. On the superficial level, it appears as though the Czech Republic is progressing well into the realm of a viable democracy. Its economy, thanks to the liberal policies of Vaclav Klaus, is arguably one of the strongest in the region. Its constitution mandates the rule of law that was so lacking under the Soviet hegemony, and its President is a man that has been dubbed by many to be a “philosopher-king,” one which was expected to lead hi...   [tags: Papers]

Research Papers
1279 words (3.7 pages)

Karl Marx's Communist Manifesto and the Industrial Proletariat Essay

- Karl Marx's Communist Manifesto and the Industrial Proletariat Karl Marx's Communist Manifesto was most appealing to and revolutionary for the industrial workers of 1848 (and those to come after that time). The call for unification of the proletariat and abolishment of the Bourgeoisie was an urgent one during a time of rapid progress in all aspects of industrial life. This urgency of The Communist Manifesto and the desire for change of political ideologies (to match the exponential rate of progress of wealth and industry) created not only a spate of revolutions, but a long lasting change in political ideas for industrialized European nations....   [tags: Karl Marx Communism Manifesto Essays]

Research Papers
1403 words (4 pages)



Another factor in European society is the structure of the bourgeoisie and the laborers. The bourgeoisie were "the class of people in bourgeoisie society who own the social means of production as the Private Property, i.e., as capital." It was often thought that the bourgeoisie class would push down the proletariat class. Although most people thought the factory workers would be pushed down in society, the conditions for the factory workers became more sufficient in the 19th century when wages began to rise. Along with the increase in factory workers, the white-collar class also grew. This white-collar group depended on their salaries just as much as those who worked in the factories. This group included those with very high status and those who were just personnel. Of course, the salary of the average factory worker was much less than someone of the bourgeoisie class. The factory workers were also seen as inferior in the eyes of those surrounding them. At times, those in the bourgeoisie class "saw themselves as feudal lords ruling over thousands of workers, usually in a paternalistic fashion. Below them were layers of white collar employees whose ideal was the civil servant who enjoyed the social prestige and job security they did not."

The laborers were seen in a much different light than those of the upper class. Some workers were considered skilled, while others were not and there was a large difference between the two. The unskilled laborers were replaceable and were not valued very much. Those who were considered unskilled tended to be workers who relied on their muscles to get a job completed. Conditions for the workers began to get better. Their incomes rose and they benefited from "governmental regulations limiting hours, imposing safety devices for machines, better aeration, rest periods, sickness insurance and old age pensions."

These new conditions left good feelings of progress and achievement, but the workers also had the complaints. Laborers tended to express their anger by lowering their efficiency. They were upset that their living conditions were not the same as others. The highest paid workers moved to suburbs, while laborers lived in "rundown apartment buildings lacking adequate plumbing and sanitation, with small often windowless rooms, and overcrowded given that workers’ families were still large and rents were high." The differences between the bourgeoisie and the laborers were prevalent. They made up the basic societal structure of European society and influenced the modernization of Europe in the 19th century.

Marxism had a great impact on European society in the 1800’s. Marxism is "a body of doctrine developed by Karl Marx and, to a lesser extent, by Friederich Engels in the mid-19th century. It originally consisted of three ideas: a philosophical view of man, a theory of history, and an economic and political program." Because of these ideas, Marx became known as one of the influential thinkers of this period in history. He chose to take the historical approach and he worked towards finding "the laws of social and economic development over time." Marx came up with components that primarily dealt with changes in the economy, technology, and labor. These changes were considered "’forces of production and relations of production’". They "formed the basis of society upon which rested a ‘superstructure’ of ideologies, political formations, religion and culture in general, all of which were conditioned by the basis or substructure." This idea became the belief of how society should run for many citizens.

By the end of the 1800’s, Marxism became a well-known idea held by some socialists. It became a new belief that held the conviction that "history would inevitably generate the overthrow of capitalism and, in the end, inaugurate a rationally ordered society in which individuals could at last be truly free." Most socialists agreed with Marx in that there should be a society devoid of classes and everyone should be treated equally. Although, Marx was an atheist, most socialists believed in God (Marxism was not an atheist belief system.) Another common belief that most citizens held was that through a revolution, the proletariat would rise up and overcome the bourgeoisie and ultimately agree that religion was useless and follow Marxism. This Marxist belief would encourage a society effort to change the view of humanity.

Most believers in this philosophy tended to be laborers. Marx fought for their rights in the modern world. The Communist Manifesto formed a new system of thinking for the middle class. It took a stance that most middle class Europeans were not willing to take on their own: "Nothing, according to Marx, could be hoped for from arguments to persuade people that change was morally desirable. Everything depended on the way history was actually going, towards the inevitable creation of a new working class by industrial society, the rootless wage-earners of the industrial cities whom he termed the industrial proletariat." This way of thinking greatly influenced the changes being made in European society in the 19th century. It influenced many people in their way of life.

Education, the social status of the bourgeoisie and the laborers, and Marxism were all very influential factors in the changes being made in Europe during the 1800’s. During this time, each aspect intertwined with beliefs brought on by the Communist Manifesto. These aspects continued to be influential to all of European society for centuries to come.


Works Cited

“Communism.” <http://www.encyclopedia.com/html/c/communism.asp>

Atkinson, Jason. The Latter Rain Page. 14 March 2002, p.1 http://www.latter-rain.com/general/commu.htm

Bannon, Alicia. SparkNotes on The Communist Manifesto. 3 March 2002, p. 1
<http://www.sparknotes.com/philosophy/communist>

Brians, Paul. Karl Marx and Fredercih Engels: The Communist Manifesto. 3 March
2002, p. 3. http://www.wsu.edu:8080/~wldciv/world_civ_reader/world_civ_reader_2/marx.htm

Kuhn, Rick. Manifesto of the Communist Party. 3 March 2002, p. 1.
<http://www.anu.edu.au/polsci/marx/classics/manifesto.html>
Return to 123HelpMe.com