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1. Amendment: Written change in the Constitution.
2. Balanced Budget: Budget in which income equals expenses.
3. Birthrate: Number of births per 1,000 persons during one year.
4. Block Grant: Federal funds given to state and local governments for broad purposes.
5. Brown v. Board of Education: Concerned eight-year-old Linda Brown, a black girl living in Topeka, Kansas. The school only five blocks from Linda’s home was for whites only.
6. City: Largest type of municipality.
7. Commander-In-Chief: Role of the President as head of the armed forces.
8. Concurring Opinion: Statement written by a Supreme Court Justice who agrees with the majority but for different reasons.
9. Counties: Subdivision of state government formed to carry out state laws, collect taxes, and supervise elections.
10. Debt Limit: Limit on the amount of money a government may borrow.
11. Delegated Powers: Power given to the federal government by the Constitution.
12. Dissenting Opinion: Statement written by a Supreme Court Justice who disagrees with the majority decision.
13. Double Jeopardy: Being tried a second time for the same crime.
14. Draft: Policy requiring men to serve in the military.
15. Due Process: Right of all people to a fair trial.
16. Electoral College: Group of people who cast the official votes that elect the President and Vice President.
17. Filibuster: Method of delaying action in the Senate by making long speeches.
18. General Election: Election in which the voters elect our leaders.
19. Glittering Generalities: Method uses words that sound good but have little real meaning.
20. Home Rule: Power of a city to write its own municipal charter and to manage its own affairs.
21. Immigrant: Person who comes to a nation to settle as a permanent resident.
22. Implied Power: Authority not specifically granted to Congress by the Constitution but which is suggested to be necessary to carry out the specific powers.
23. Interest: Payment made for the use of loaned money.
24. Interest Group: Organization of people with common interests who try to influence government policies and decisions.
25. Lobbyist: Person paid to represent an interest group’s viewpoint at congressional committee hearings and who tries to influence the votes of Congress members.
26. Marbury v. Madison: The case involved William Marbury, who had been promised appointment as a justice of the peace, and Secretary of State James Madison.
27. Major-Council Plan: System of local government in which voters elect a city council to make laws and a major to carry out laws.
28. Misdemeanor: Less serious crime, such as a traffic violation.
29. Personal Income Tax: Tax on the income a person earns.
30. Plank: Each part of a political party’s platform.
31. Political Action Committee: Political arm of a interest group that collects voluntary contributions from members and contributes it to political candidates and parties it favors.
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32. Popular Vote: Total votes cast by individual voters in a Presidential election.
33. Presidential Succession: Order in which the office of President is to be filled if it becomes vacant.
34. Press Secretary: Presidential assistant who represents the President to the news media and the public.
35. Primary Election: Election in which the voters of various parties choose candidates to run for office in a general election.
36. Profit: Income a business has left after expenses.
37. Public Opinion: Sum total of the opinions held concerning particular issue.
38. Revealed Propaganda: Propaganda that openly attempts to influence people.
39. Rural Areas: Region of farms and small towns.
40. Self-Incrimination: Testifying against oneself.
41. Session: Regular meeting of Congress.
42. Sheriff: Chief law-enforcement official in some county governments.
43. Small Claims Court: State court that hears civil cases involving small amounts of money.
44. Special District: Unit of local government set up to provide a specific service.
45. State of the Union Message: Yearly report of the President to Congress, as required by the Constitution, in which the nation’s condition is described and programs and policies are recommended.
46. Sunbelt: Region made up of states in the South and West.
47. Surplus: Amount by which income exceeds expenditures.
48. Testimonial: Political candidates and advertisers often seek endorsements from famous people.
49. Third Parties: Political organization in the United States other than the major parties.
50. Unconstitutional: Going against the Constitution, or beyond the powers granted by it.
51. Veto: Refusal of the President or a governor to sign a bill.