Essay PreviewMore ↓
Seventy-five years ago the type of diabetes that affected children and
young adults was lethal. In the 1990's investigators found that a hormone, that
was produced in Islets of Langerhans, was not being produced in diabetes
patients. This hormone, called insulin, enables other cells to take up sugar
glucose from the blood for energy. Diabetes patients who were not making insulin
had glucose from food accumulating in the blood while other tissues were
starving. Their are two types of diabetes. Type 1 diabetes has ceased completely
from making insulin and the people who had this kind usually died. Type 2
diabetes still makes a little insulin so suffers of this type usually lived.
In the 1920's prospects for people who suffered from type 1 diabetes
increased when it was learned that insulin extracted from animals and placed in
humans could prevent death. Unfortunately, this is not a cure. Patients can get
potentially fatal diabetes-related disorders. These include blindness and, or
kidney failure. Atherososclerosis, numbness and pain in extremities caused by
narrowed vessicles, may also be a problem. These effects are caused because
insulin injections can't perfectly mimic naturally made insulin.
That's why a therapy that maintains glucose values within normal from
the begging is needed. An ideal treatment would be the implantation of islets.
This, in theory, would only have to be done once and would insure proper insulin
production. Successful grafts would also prevent diabete-related ills.
At Paul E. Lacy's lab, experiments have been done for twenty- five years
on such a process. At first they were just trying to understand the mechanics of
hormone secretion. To start this they needed a way to separate islet clusters
from the pancreas. These constitute only 2% of the entire pancreas, though, and
are scattered throughout it. In 1967 they found a solution and took the islets
from rats. These islets were transplanted in inbred rats to see if it would
control insulin production in diabetes patients. It was a success and kept blood
sugar levels normal. It even fixed early complications in the eyes and the
The next step was to test the process on humans. Unfortunately, the
process that was used to separate rat islets from the pancreas did not work on
humans. They had to find a new way to solve the problem. The problem took a few
years to solve but in the mid 1980's they finally found a semi-automatic method
to do it. This method managed to isolate 400,000 islets from the pancreas. It
would take just the amount they estimated to maintain the blood sugar level.
How to Cite this Page
"Treating Diabetes With Transplanted Cells." 123HelpMe.com. 17 Jan 2020
Need Writing Help?
Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.Check your paper »
- Stem cells are used every day throughout the United States to help cure diseases and save lives. Stem cells can also be used to study labor defects so that future birth deficiencies can be prevented or reversed. Although as a college student starting a family may not be on your mind yet, it is always beneficial to educate yourself on current trends and new discoveries in stem cell research. Andres Travino and his wife were excited when their son Andy was born ten years ago. Andy prayed and hoped for a healthy baby despite the fact that his wife was a carrier of a genetic gene called NEMO, which caused the immune system to fail.... [tags: Medical Research]
1522 words (4.3 pages)
- Stem Cells in the Treatment of Diabetes Diabetes mellitus affects 18 million people in the U.S. alone (8.7% of the population) and more than 190 million worldwide. The prevalence of diabetes has increased alarmingly in the past three decades and, corresponding to global dietary and lifestyle trends, is projected to nearly double in the next ten years (1). Although diabetes can be treated, serious complications from improperly managed diabetes are common and can lead to death. Recent reports suggest that one of the most promising potential treatments may come from the use of stem cells, undifferentiated cells that can be coaxed into becoming insulin-producing islet-like cells that reduce d... [tags: Diabetes Mellitus Science Health Essays]
1612 words (4.6 pages)
- Introduction The purpose of this project is explaining the diagnosis of diabetes to those parents whose children suffer from this problem and various other ways in which they can take care of them. This paper will be more on health education on treating diabetes as a disease if attacks the children. Diabetes or diabetes mellitus commonly referred by the doctors is a group of metabolic diseases where the person suffers from very high blood glucose (blood sugar). This is because insulin production is not adequate or maybe because the cell’s of the body is not responding properly to insulin, or both.... [tags: Diabetes mellitus, Insulin, Blood sugar, Diabetes]
1377 words (3.9 pages)
- Learning about diabetes is the first step to take to prevent the spread of diabetes in the nation. There are two major types of diabetes; there is type one diabetes, also known as juvenile diabetes and there is type two diabetes (American Diabetes Association 2015). Type one diabetes forms when the body’s immune system mistakenly identifies pancreatic cells as a foreign body invader (WebMD 2015). This causes the immune system to attack and eliminate the pancreatic cells (WebMD 2015). As a result of this body malfunction, insulin production drastically drops or in the worse possible scenario, the body can stop the production of insulin.... [tags: Insulin, Diabetes mellitus, Blood sugar]
1443 words (4.1 pages)
- Diabetes, Be Gone. For years, researchers have searched for a cure for the destroyed beta (β) cells in an individual’s immune system. There hasn’t been any success in finding the cure until 2014, when Harvard University researchers teamed together to obtain a discovery that could possibly help millions of individuals in the world who are affected by diabetes. Grown Stem Cells for Diabetes Cure Harvard researchers introduced a possible cure that could save numerous individuals from the lifelong disease known as diabetes.... [tags: Insulin, Diabetes mellitus, Blood sugar, Diabetes]
1450 words (4.1 pages)
- Did you know that in 2012, 29.1 million Americans were diagnosed with diabetes. About 1.25 million children and adults were diagnosed with type 1 diabetes. (American Diabetes Association, 2015) More and more Americans are being diagnosed with diabetes, and it’s more common now than ever before. But, what is really scary is the “myths” about diabetes that is creating an image that have false information and contain stereotypes. “If you eat too much sugar, you get diabetes,” “If you are a diabetic, you cannot have sweets,” “You can catch diabetes from somebody,” and “Fruit is healthy, eat as much as you want.... [tags: Diabetes mellitus, Blood sugar, Insulin, Diabetes]
1724 words (4.9 pages)
- Type 1 Diabetes, Type 2 Diabetes, Gestational Diabetes and their Causes Diabetes is a disease where the body is no longer able to produce enough insulin or any at all; therefore, it can cause escalated glucose levels in the blood. In the United States alone in 2012, 9.3 percent of the population or 29.1 million people have been diagnosed with diabetes (National Diabetes Statistics Report 2014). There are three different types of diabetes; type 1, type 2, and gestational. Each type of diabetes is formed differently, but they are all treatable and manageable.... [tags: Diabetes mellitus, Insulin, Diabetes]
1078 words (3.1 pages)
- There 're 29.1 million people or 9.3% of the U.S population have diabetes and only 21.0 million people are diagnosed (National Diabetes Statistics Report, 2014). According to National Institute of Health, Diabetes is caused by high-level blood glucose, it’s caused by the foods we eat, or blood sugar levels are too high. Insulin is a hormone that helps the glucose get into the cells to give energy. There 're two types of diabetes: Type 1 Diabetes does not make insulin and Type 2 Diabetes does not make or use insulin.... [tags: Diabetes mellitus, Blood sugar, United States]
1032 words (2.9 pages)
- New Diabetic. Here are 6 Questions to ask your doctor Diabetes is one of the most diagnosed conditions, affecting over 1.4 million Americans each year, totalling over 29 million Americans. One in four diabetics do not know they have diabetes. Visiting to your doctor for a simple yearly exam, including bloodwork, can diagnose diabetes. If you receive a call that your blood sugar test was high, you may be diabetic. A follow up appointment will be needed and you need to ask your doctor some questions.... [tags: Blood sugar, Diabetes mellitus, Insulin, Diabetes]
785 words (2.2 pages)
- Diabetes Diabetes is a lifelong disease that can affect both children and adults. This disease is the sixth leading cause of death in the United States. It claims about 178,000 lives each year. Type one diabetes, also known as insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, usually occurs in people less than thirty years of age, but it also may appear at any age. Diabetes is a very serious disease with many life threatening consequences, but if it is taken care of properly, diabetics can live a normal life.... [tags: Health Disease Disorder Diabetes Essays Papers]
992 words (2.8 pages)
In 1986 the first experiment started. A lot of immune-suppresent drugs
are needed so the foreign tissue would not be rejected. These drugs are risky,
though, so the experiment was performed on patients who have had kidney
transplants and are already on these drugs. They decided that the best place to
place the islets was into the portal vein leading to the pancreas. This would
give the islets nourishment from the beginning and would be less risky than
placing them directly into the pancreas.
The results were encouraging. Subjects were given 400,000 islets and the
grafts worked. But it was not enough to stop insulin injection. Later when the
islets were increased to 800,000, the insulin injections were able to be stopped,
at least for a time. They also learned that the islets could be frozen and
stored. Since 1990 about 145 patients have had the process done. Most were
unable to control the blood sugar level. Strain on the islets may have been a
problem and in some cases enough probably weren't used.
Doctors are proposing to give these transplants with graphs even though
the results weren't perfect. The process is less costly and easier than complete
Many concepts have been considered though to solve the last part of the
problem. One is being looked into by Kevin J. Lafferty. That is, that if you
destroy passenger luekocytes, the tissue would not be rejected.This has been
attributed to the theory that it takes two signals for host white blood cells to
attack foreign agents. These two signals are sent by the passenger luekocytes.
Unfortunately, to destroy these luekocytes you also destroy the hormone-
producing cells. Joseph M. Davie has devised a culturing technique, though, that
kills the passenger luekocytes without hurting the hormone-producing cells. He
placed 1,500 treated islets from one rat strain to a portal vein of another.
There was no rejection! Unfortunately, the individual islets had to be treated
separately and so is not practical for humans who need much, much more islets. A
solution was found in 1993. It is to take a few treated islets to a subject.
This creates a tolerance for these islets which are transplanted untreated later.
This is still being experimented on, though.
Another process is being experimented on also. This is being tried
because of the theory that diabetes is caused by an autoimmune process that
differs from rejection. This process perceives beta cells, specific cells that
produce insulin, as foreign tissue and destroy them. Therefore even if a
transplant is fully successful the bets cells will be destroyed. To cure
diabetes, islets that do not match those of the recipients islets must be
injected. Another solution is also to enclose these islets in a semipermeable
plastic membrane. If pore size is ideal, membranes let glucose reach islets and
allow insulin to made while keeping the islet safe.
William L. Chick developed a technique that puts islets in a plastic
tube that allows blood flow in where it contacts the islets. Then insulin passes
out. It worked for a while until the tube became clogged. The biocompatibility
has been improved, though, and has worked for several months in a dog specimen.
These tubes are thought to be able to rupture though in a rough situation. This
could cause internal bleeding. The tubes could also clog arteries.
Franklin Lim and Anthony M. Sun has also prepared islets by suspending
them in alginate and enclosing them. It has been placed in rats and worked but
the islets died from lack of nutrients caused by the alginate. Plastic-coated
droplets are more biocampatible and have temporarily reversed diabetes in
patients. These capsules are very small but are needed in such large amounts
that to be feasibly worked they would have to be even smaller. A way to remove
these capsules readily is also needed.
Paul E. Lacy has also developed a way using islets covered in jelled
alginate and then enclosed in a hollow, semi spherical acrylic fiber that has
amazingly biocompatibility. This procedure maintained normal blood sugar level
in a rat for an entire year. It is being tested on humans.
Research is also going on to make a fully artificial pancreas. This
device would be able to monitor blood sugar and release just the right amount of
insulin in response. A device that is at once small, durable and accurate is
still trying to be devised though.
Before these a solution can be wide spread used though, enough donor
islets must be found beside cadavers due to the amount of people that suffer
from diabetes. Some other places islets might be found are in fetuses, many
scientists hope to find a way to implant insulin-making cells alone which can be
grown in labs, and pig islets are also a major possibility. Transplanting of
encapsuled cells may also help a lot of other people beside diabetes patients
including; Hemophiliacs and people suffering from Parkinsons disease.