Essay PreviewMore ↓
When many people think about leaders during Black History Month (February) they think about people like Martin Luther King Jr., George Washington Carver, Harriet Tubman, and Booker T. Washington.. Now that is acceptable, but rarely does anyone remember the man who sparked the Civil Rights movement in America, my cousin, Marcus Garvey. I want to acknowledge my cousin on his achievements and also thank him for what he has done for the African-American race. Marcus Garvey may not have made the same kind of contributions that other Civil Rights leaders have made, but that doesn’t mean he didn’t fight for his people Marcus Garvey made one of the greatest contributions of the Civil Rights movement by trying to help out the Negro community all over the world, in a movement known as “Back to Africa.”
Marcus Garvey had two very different parents.’ Marcus’s mother was a gentle, slim, beautiful woman. “She was known for being kind and helpful woman to her neighbors and for working hard to bring up her family” (Lawler 15).Marcus’s father was different of another sort; he was hard, stern, and stubborn. “A skilled stonemason, he cut and shaped white rock for the walls of nearby plantation houses belonging to Jamaica’s wealthy estate owners. But he only worked when he felt like it.”(Lawler 16).Now although these were good qualities to have, in addition to “brilliant intellect and dashing courage,” his father’s bold, determined, strong, stubborn, and fearless attitude led to his downfall.
Marcus’s father liked to read and received a newspaper every week for 20 years and he thought it was a gift from the editor, yet when the publisher died, the executors of the estate sent Garvey Sr. a bill that he steadfastly ignored and as a result he was then taken to court and in a series of events his including property being sold to cover the debts and quarrels with neighbors over land boundaries the Garvey estate was soon down to the little land that their house stood on. Now Marcus Garvey’s father was stubborn but that runs deep in his blood lines as a Maroon. The Maroons were a group of escaped Jamaican slaves who fought British colonial rule during the 17th & 18th century.
Marcus Mosiah Garvey, named after his father, was born on April 17, 1881, to Sarah and Marcus Garvey.
How to Cite this Page
"The Back to Africa Effect." 123HelpMe.com. 26 Aug 2019
Need Writing Help?
Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.Check your paper »
- On a daily basis, first world countries worry about warfare, competing with other nations, and improving technology to better conditions. Despite living in a world where these near ideal countries exist, some nations still struggle with the ability to provide some of the most basic vital needs to its citizens. Africa, home to a plethora of cultures, is one region that has struggled with food security throughout history. Although other countries may overlook leftover food being tossed into landfills, some people, including many Africans, cannot afford such a luxury.... [tags: Poverty, Africa, Malnutrition, Starvation]
2182 words (6.2 pages)
- The 18th and 19th centuries were known as the height of Imperialism. European countries became more and more engaged in the “Scramble for Africa”. Nations including Britain, Spain, France, Portugal, Belgium, and Germany raced to conquer lands in Africa. Imperialism in Africa had many negative and positive effects on the conquered country. It brought modernized technology and certain reforms, while it also introduced racist laws, enforced harsh labors, and ruined the economies of many colonies. Although European imperialism in Africa brought modernized technology, Imperialism was not beneficial for Africa due to the social, economic, and political costs that the Europeans brought.... [tags: imperialism, african colonies, africa]
931 words (2.7 pages)
- some of Asia were sketched and colored in yellow. Piled up on the surface of Europe and North America were dozens if not hundreds of shiny gold stones. Europe and North America were the only two continents with piles of these gold stones. Having been born in Africa, I quickly noticed the odd surface color of Africa. The landscape of Africa was dug up and covered with mud, unlike the other four continents that were also sketched in the cartoon. At the center of the dug up landscape of Africa were also shiny gold rocks, but only four sitting on top of the mud dirt.... [tags: Atlantic slave trade, Africa, Continent, Slavery]
751 words (2.1 pages)
- Origins of Apartheid In the seventeenth century, South Africa was colonized by Dutch and British imperialists. In response to British domination, Dutch settlers made two colonies: The Republic of the Orange Free State and Transvaal. Dutch descendants became known as “Afrikaners” or “Boers.” In the early 1900s, Boers discovered diamonds on their land. This led to a Britain invasion and sparked the Second Boer War, which lasted three years. This was the first modern war to see concentration camps; they were used successfully to break the will of Afrikaner guerilla forces by detaining their families.... [tags: South Africa Apartheid Essays]
2564 words (7.3 pages)
- 7. Country Comparison Opportunity Comparison Nigeria is the 7th largest country in the world, and first in Africa with a population of over 182 million people in 2015 (World Bank, 2016b). The GDP has been inconsistent over the past three years showing $411.7 billion in 2011, spiking to $568.4 billion in 2014 and dropping back down to $481 billion in 2015 (World Bank, 2016b). While GDP is expected to decrease by -0.8 percent in 2016, the country is expected to average real GDP growth of 2.98 percent from 2017 through 2021 (Economist Intelligence Unit, 2016b).... [tags: Africa, South Africa, Inflation, African Union]
1040 words (3 pages)
- When the Europeans started colonizing Africa, they also divided people into many countries, as they did with Rwanda when two aboriginal enemies started living together, and started killing each other. While colonizing, white people also started living in Africa, what also create disparities between races. Relation between Black and White people has never been great because of racism, slavery, and the apartheid. The apartheid was a politic system created by the National Party, who governed South Africa from 1948 to 1994, and gave no rights to black people and other ethnic groups.... [tags: Africa, South Africa, White people, Black people]
871 words (2.5 pages)
- Everybody has place they go to at the end of the day, a place to live and love, a place of safety, a place to call home. People want their home to remain a safe and not have to feel as if they are burden or a problem in their safety zone. Unfortunately, in many place people’s homes are being compromised by the government or a person in charge telling them they are less of a human because of their race, ethnicity, or religion. This includes the country of South Africa. In South Africa during the years of 1948-1994, an apartheid was put in place.... [tags: South Africa, Nelson Mandela, Thabo Mbeki]
1196 words (3.4 pages)
- Imperialism in Africa Imperialism is defined as one country’s domination of the political, economic, and social life of another country. In Africa in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, imperialism was present and growing. The main countries involved in the imperialism in Africa were the French, German, and Great Britain. The French’s empire was mainly in North and West Africa while Britain’s colonies were scattered throughout the continent. Germany ruled over such countries as Tanganyika, Togoland, and Cameroon, until their defeat in World War I.... [tags: Imperialism Africa Government Essays]
954 words (2.7 pages)
- AIDS In Africa HIV-AIDS has infected over thirty million people in the world. Over 95% of all AIDS cases in the world are in Africa and in some of those countries over 40% of the people are infected (Frederickson and Kanabus HIV and AIDS in Africa 1). AIDS does not solely affect homosexuals, or any certain ethnicity of people, either; HIV-AIDS can affect any type of ethnicity including African Americans, Caucasians, Asians, Indians, and Hispanic people. AIDS cannot be reversed or cured, but with proper treatment this deadly virus can be controlled and people can live a nearly normal life.... [tags: AIDS HIV Disease Africa African Essays]
2869 words (8.2 pages)
- Europe tried to take many countries, Africa being one of them. The European countries had an effect on Africa today throughout all the primes. Europe had an effect on the African way of life, that in some ways were good, and in some ways bad. Imperialism is defined as the extension or rule or influence by one government, nation, or society over the political, economic, or cultural life of another. European nations decided they wanted land in the mostly unexplored continent, and they took it, without the consent of the African people.... [tags: essays research papers]
516 words (1.5 pages)
-In the word of Marcus Garvey (Lawler, p.20)
This incident was the first bit of racism that Garvey experienced. After this incident Garvey realized the barriers in race. This was just the thing Garvey needed to see the reality of the world, and it also helped him realize his dream for leading his people to freedom.
Garvey’s struggle was influenced by his yearning for learning. He was educated in public schools, by private tutors, and by reading the volumes in his father’s library. Garvey’s first job, at age 15, was a printer’s apprentice in his godfather’s shop.Yet, this was not end of his education.Garvey’s godfather was an educated man, who continued to educate Garvey in the back room of his printing shop, which was full of old literature. At 18, Marcus moved to Kingston, Jamaica’s capital, and worked at his uncle’s rintery.Within two years he was a master printer and foreman at one of the islands largest firms’ (Lawler 21)This experience became useful to Garvey when he began his own series of newspapers and journals that became major parts of the organizations he started. Also his time and exposure in Kingston contributed to the shaping of his political ideas. (Lawler 21)
All of these events and many more led to Garvey setting up his own organization, the UNIA (Universal Negro Improvement Association).The UNIA’s Purpose was to improve the conditions for Negro's all over the world. Although Garvey wanted separation for blacks and whites, he also wanted peace, harmony, and equal rights and opportunities for both sides. The UNIA a non-profit organization, but there were still costs. For that reason, Garvey was forced to leave Jamaica and the Caribbean and move to New York City, where he could get the most help and improvements for his organization (Lawler 41)
Garvey established a New York UNIA, which he also decided to make his head quarters. Afterwards, he also established a United Negro Factories Corporation, Black Star Line. At this time there was a failed murder attempt on Garvey by former employee; George Tyler Garvey married his secretary, Amy Ashwood. Next, he oversaw the First International Convention of Negro Peoples of the World, and founded the African Orthodox Church. (Lawler 107) Garvey then travels to Latin America, and upon return, the U.S. government tries to prevent him from entering. Next, in personal issues, he divorced Amy Ashwood, and then marries Amy Jacques (downward spiral). Garvey was arrested, charged, and indicted for mail fraud in connection with Black Star Line. In another shocker, he met with KKK members to arrange some sort of agreement with their organization. He was then convicted in a mail fraud trial, sentenced to five years imprisonment, which he appealed and was released on bail. Afterwards, he established the Black Cross Navigation and Trading Company. Then in, 1925, his appeals of conviction are rejected and Garvey entered the Atlanta Penitentiary.
Eventually, Garvey’s sentence is commuted; he is deported to Jamaica.
Garvey went to London and established a European branch of the UNIA. Upon his return he presided, over the Sixth International Convention of the Negro Peoples of the World. After that he had his first son, Marcus Jr. Three years after that his son Julius Winston was born. Garvey then moves to UNIA Headquarters in London and on June 10, 1940 Marcus Mosiah Garvey died. (According to Lowler, p.107’Marcus Garvey)
In conclusion Garvey led an interesting life. The reason I say that is because no man like him had ever tried what he did. Also believe he made the biggest contribution by trying to help the entire African-American race.
Bayne John G. and Clarke John Henrik ‘Marcus Garvey’ The Afrocentric Experience http://www.swagga.com/marcus.htm
Gershoni, Yekutiel Common goals, different ways: The UNIA and the NCBWA in West Africa; Journal of Third World Studies; Volume 18, #2
Lawler, Mary; Marcus Garvey, New York, Chelsea House Publisher