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Culture is a learned reaction, this human survival trait gives us a way to colonize and adapt to our environment. With out this key element, adaptation becomes complicated, and our species will die off. Archeologist have dug and scraped away the dirt, rocks and mud to bring us a glimpse of the past. Their fieldwork has shown us how we, as a whole, have biologically adapted to suit our modern needs in the environment that our ancestors have lived in. In addition, they also tell us how we have changed the natural environment as the population has increased in size. This brings us to substance and economics, a basic foundation in which a culture can survive. The definition of economics is reacting to the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services. For the definition of substance I have found two that compliment this cross-cultural comparison. One is ?material possessions, wealth, and property?. The second definition is ?that which gives stability or solidarity, confidence, and ground.? These definitions are not only evident in today?s modern social infrastructures but also evident in cultures of the past and the social order in other countries. We have come to understand that there are four ways to sustain a community that our evolution process has brought us to. These ways are hunting and gathering, fishing and gardening, herding, and agriculture. The longest known survival method is hunting and gathering.
This course of action was a main part of the old stone culture known as the Paleolithic period when hominids walked the land. They would gather berries, seeds, wild fruits, vegetables and even hunted wild game in the area. This type of practice is still used today in Africa and other parts of the world. Similarly, the Yiwara, who inhabit the heart of the Gibson Desert, have a lifestyle adapted to this arid environment. In the desert, there is no regular seasonal pattern of food-collecting, because there are no predictable seasons when plants can be expected to ripen. Thus, opportunistic movement towards rainfall and known water catchments spots also known as billabongs characterizes the subsistence of the Yiwara. Large game constitutes only a small part of the Yiwara diet, which is largely vegetarian. Lizards, rabbits provide most of the protein and are collected by everyone. Even these small animals are divided and shared among kin. Individual portions may be barely a mouthful, but nothing is wasted.
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