Essay PreviewMore ↓
NASA’s goal of faster, better, cheaper has been the motivation for them to develop new mission concepts, and to validate never-before-used technologies in space. The new technologies, if proven to work, will revolutionize space exploration in the next century. According to NASA’s New Millennium Program home page, last updated on September 16,1999, NASA’s current project of Deep Space 1 demonstrates some of their most exotic technologies. One of the most impressive is the testing of an ion engine that is supposed to be 10 times more efficient than liquid or solid rocket engines. Deep Space 1 was launched on October 24, 1998. It is the first mission under NASA’s New Millennium Program, which features flight testing of new technology, rather than science as its main focus (Rayman 4). These new technologies will make spacecraft of the future smaller, more economical, reliable, and closer to the goal of efficient space travel.
How to Cite this Page
"Star Traveling To The Millennium." 123HelpMe.com. 18 Nov 2019
Need Writing Help?
Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.Check your paper »
- The Hero Journey in Star Wars Star Wars was a low budget science-fiction film that became a blockbuster box office success. The movie has been extremely popular with all cultures and ages for several decades. As well as being popular Star Wars also conveys many important themes. I believe one of the more prominent themes throughout the movie is the classic hero journey. The hero journey is a major part of stories and myths throughout the world. Both primitive and modern cultures use hero journeys as the basis for stories.... [tags: Film Movies Star Wars Themes Essays]
390 words (1.1 pages)
- Star Wars, by George Lucas, is an excellent movie. This movie is filled with archetypal and mythic patterns , and the ideas represented in the film are essential ingredients to human emotion . The most obvious idea represented by the movie is religion. Good versus Evil, Light versus Dark, and the Rebels versus the Empire -- these are all spiritual overtones in the elaborate story line. The religious connections become apparent when aspects of the movie are analyzed. Star Wars opens with a deserted desert planet where the viewer is introduced to the main character, Luke Skywalker, and his aunt and uncle.... [tags: essays research papers]
1212 words (3.5 pages)
- Introduction The term millennium does not appear anywhere in Scripture. The idea originated from a thousand year period of time that characterizes the reign of the Messiah. In fact, the phrase “thousand years” is stated six times in Revelation 20. There are three main schools of thought based upon one’s view of the thousand-year reign of Christ. These views are: Amillennial, Postmillennial and Premillennial. Over the centuries these prophetic differences have caused conflict within the body of Christ and are still currently widely debated.... [tags: Biblical Millennium]
2500 words (7.1 pages)
- The expiration of The Millennium Development Goals (MDG) has made the post 2015 landscape an intergovernmental priority. The revised Sustainable Development Goals, (SDGs) propose seventeen global initiatives that focus on the eradication of extreme poverty whilst also considering economic development and environmental protection (Veit & Hazlewood, 2014). Whilst Matuschke (2015) agrees that this is a “pivotal year for sustainable development”, she also questions the validity of these global directives, as there remains a disjuncture between their “conflicting aims.” This essay will consider the extent to which the SDGs address three global imperatives for development; global economic power, c... [tags: Millennium Development Goals, Poverty]
710 words (2 pages)
- There are young people growing up today who may be among the first humans to see a world where extreme poverty and hunger are rare, where education is equally available to boys and girls alike, where gender does not determine a person’s value, where children are named at birth because childhood death is low, where childbirth is not a death sentence, where HIV/AIDs, malaria, and polio treatments and vaccines are easily available, where environmental protection is not just for the tree huggers, and where people from many disciplines and walks of life come together to make a difference.... [tags: United Nations, Millennium Development Goals]
1011 words (2.9 pages)
- Introduction The United Nations Organization (UNO) has been at work for decades in order to make this world a better place to live in. This is done by giving the leaders from every country to come up and discuss the global happenings on a neutral platform in order to make sure that the concerns and the difficulties of each country are properly heard. Similarly, one aspect of the UNO is to monitor the global events by itself and, when the time comes, should interfere to make sure that such events do not have a long term impact on the political stability on the region.... [tags: United Nations, Millennium Summit, 8 MDGs]
1216 words (3.5 pages)
- 1. Introduction Over the past decades, the reduction of poverty, particularly in its extreme form has been at the center of national policies in most developing countries and high on international development agendas (United Nations, 2014). This is clearly evidenced in the importance given to poverty reduction in the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and in the discussions on the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The MDGs have served as a unified framework for concerted efforts by governments, development partners and international organizations to reduce poverty.... [tags: Poverty, Millennium Development Goals]
1293 words (3.7 pages)
- In "The Star" by Arthur C. Clark, a Jesuit astrophysicist is forced to question his faith. The findings are troubling, an entire civilization is destroyed by a supernova; the implosion of their sun. The calculations that he makes proves that explosion could have been seen from earth at the same time the Star of Bethlehem announced the birth of Jesus Christ. His crew looks at the situation with a more logical justification. They believe that the events in the universe happen with no plan or purpose.... [tags: The Star ]
302 words (0.9 pages)
- Atrocities in Stafford's Traveling Through the Dark Is a drive just a drive, or is it a metaphor that imparts appreciation for life's fragility while simultaneously lamenting man's inability to appropriately confront, or understand, death. William Stafford's "Traveling Through the Dark" illustrates the mechanisms by which seemingly mundane events become probes into the mystery and ambiguity of the human condition. The poem's situation is simple, a lone traveler driving along a desolate canyon road spots a felled deer; the traveler, desiring neither to hit the deer, nor by swerving to avoid it, hurtle his car over the canyon precipice, stops his vehicle and proceeds to push the falle... [tags: Traveling Through Dark]
791 words (2.3 pages)
- Profound Meaning in William Stafford's Traveling Through the Dark The power of the poet is not only to convey an everyday scene into a literary portrait of words, but also to interweave this scene into an underlying theme. The only tool the poet has to wield is the word. Through a careful placement and selection of words, the poet can hopefully make his point clear, but not blatantly obvious. Common themes of poems are life, death, or the conflicting forces thereto. This theme could never possibly be overused because of the endless and limitless ways of portraying life or death through the use of different words.... [tags: Stafford Traveling Through the Dark Essays]
1187 words (3.4 pages)
All of this testing is now paving the way for star traveling. The great stumbling block in this road to the stars, however, is the sheer difficulty of getting anywhere in space. Merely achieving orbit is an expensive and risky proposition. Current space propulsion technologies make it a stretch to send probes to distant destinations within the solar system. Spacecrafts have to follow multiyear, indirect trajectories that loop around several planets in order to gain velocity from gravity assists. Then, the craft lacks the energy to come back. Fortunately, engineers have no shortage of inventive plans for new propulsion systems that might someday expand human presence beyond this planet. Anti-matter, compact nuclear rockets, and light sails are three ideas that engineers are experimenting with. But these ideas are in their embryonic stages and it is already more than apparent that the task is as difficult as it could possibly be, but still remain possible. Robert Frisbee, a researcher at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Lab said, “right now, based on our current level of ignorance, all three energy sources are equally impossible or possible” (DiChristina 2). Some of these ideas are just radical refinements of current rocket or jet technologies. Others harness nuclear energies or ride on powerful laser beams. Even the equivalents of “space elevators” used for hoisting cargoes into orbit are on the drawing boards.
Out of all the ideas that have been brought up, NASA is seriously exploring three. One of the first possibilities but the hardest to obtain is anti-matter. When antimatter comes into contact with regular matter they annihilate and the mass is converted into energy. Stephanie Leifer of the Jet Propulsion Lab stated in the June 1999 issue of Popular Science Magazine that, “The antimatter-matter reaction has the highest energy density we know of”(55). The reaction releases charged particles that could be directed out the back of the spacecraft for thrust using magnetic “nozzles.” A small problem is that engineers don’t know how to make the nozzle big enough for antimatter engine. Then add another problem of making thousands of tons of antimatter when only mere a nanogram of antimatter is made at special laboratories like Fermilab and CERN. The largest problem to add on to this is antimatter cannot make contact with matter. Currently it has been extremely difficult to store more than a tiny amount of antimatter in magnetic traps. These magnetic traps keep charged particles from hitting the matter containment walls and annihilating. To solve the problem physicist Gerald Smith and his team at Penn State decided to tackle the problem on several fronts. They were able to trap shoebox-size antimatter and hold 100 million antiprotons (Beardsley 5). But until scientist can contain over a ton the antimatter-matter reaction will be put away.
A second energy source is nuclear fission, also called compact nuclear rockets. These rockets can impart a maximum velocity increment of up to about 22 kilometers a second even, though it is not even close to the amount of energy the anti-matter reaction can create. Hydrogen, the key element in fission, is much easier to obtain and engineers are closer to building a rocket motor that can be powered with nuclear fission. According to the Scientific American web page last updated on September 12, 1999, James Powell and his colleagues have designed a compact nuclear rocket engine that they call Mitee (4). In reality this rocket can be built in six years and would cost about 600 million dollars, which is modest in context of past space launches. Another key attraction to nuclear propulsion is that its propellant—hydrogen—is widely available in gaseous forms on the giant planets of the outer solar system and in the water and ice of distant moons and planets. Because the nuclear fuel would be relatively long lasting, a nuclear-powered craft could in theory tour the outer solar system for 10 or 15 years, thus replenishing its hydrogen propellant as necessary (7). Its reactor would start up well away from Earth. A nuclear-powered spacecraft could actually be made safer than some deep-space probes that are powered by chemical thrusters. In the near term, only nuclear rockets could give us the kind of power, reliability, and flexibility that we would need to dramatically improve our understanding of the still largely mysterious worlds at the far edges of our solar system.
The last chief option is to leave the engine at home and power the spacecraft with solar sails most commonly called light sails. Light sails may be initially more promising than anti-matter or fission. According to the previous mentioned issue of Popular Science, Robert Forward, a retired Hughes physicist who now consults for NASA, concluded that, “in terms of the closest and cleanest development program light sails may be the first step”(3). The sail literally allows the shuttle to be pushed through space by photons from a laser or the sun. When the photon collides with the sail, it will either simply be absorbed by the sail material or will reflect off the photon. Both processes impart acceleration, but reflection imparts twice as much as absorption. Thus, the most efficient sail is a reflective one. Like other propulsion methods light sails are limited in their performance by the thermal properties and the strength of materials, as well as by our limited ability to design anything that consists of a polished, thin metal film. However, a good deal of work relevant to light sails has already been done. The Department of Defense has developed high-powered lasers and precision-pointing capability as part of its research into ballistic-missile defenses and possible anti-satellite weaponry. Closer to home the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration announced it’s planning to launch within four years a spacecraft powered by a light sail. NASA is now evaluating plans to develop laser light sails as a possible low-cost alternative to conventional rockets. We see in light sails a possible glimpse of the future, an inexpensive access to the remote solar system and beyond. In time they could make travel to distant stars a reality.
Now that we have seen how close to star traveling we really are, let’s get aboard the perfect spacecraft and let our imagination become reality. Every one loads the new and improved star traveling vehicle. Buckle up it is going to be a bumpy ride. We travel for about two light years which seems like an extremely quick trip. Our craft lands on a neighboring planet to our solar system. As a team we start to explore and record the data we are finding on this new planet. After our explorations, we head back to Earth. When we return, we find that every one has gotten several years older and technology has just exploded to mind boggling heights. Another space race has begun but this time it is to colonize planets. Our knowledge and understanding of who we are would be forever altered. The next step would be to start exploring possibilities for intersolar travel. Going back and forth between Jupiter, Pluto, and the Moon to retrieve energy sources or visit a friend that is now a Lunar citizen. Jupiter is converted into a large gas station were the spacecrafts could stop and refuel with the indefinite supply of Hydrogen gas that makes up this large planet. Our planet could start to mine the Asteroid belt for old energy sources and find new ones. The biggest change for our world would be social standards. How will we treat people when they introduce themselves as a citizen of Pluto? Picture all of the new art forms and sporting events that could take shape in zero gravity conditions. Would our society expand and have states on distant moons of Jupiter? Students in school on Venus could look out their windows when they are tired of reading Antigone and see the outline of the Earth instead of a boring playground.
When the technology is ready, our world as we know it will be completely turned upside down thinking about colonizing planets and other solar systems dozens of light years away. Space enthusiasts look to the day when ordinary people, as well as professional astronauts and members of Congress, can leave Earth behind and head for a space resort, or maybe a base on the moon or Mars. The Space Transportation Association, an industry lobbying group, recently created a division devoted to promoting space tourism on their web page which was last updated on August 12, 1999. They see space travel as a viable way to spur economic development beyond Earth. Just imagine, someday we may be able to leave Earth and head to a planet that can support human life and have new energy sources for faster and more efficient way of doing simple task in life. Our imaginary trip will soon become a reality for future generations, even though this is still a science fiction goal to us. Serious investigators continue to look for ways to turn each of these concepts into a reality. If one of the energy sources work, it will change our ideas about the universe radically. Then possibly space would no longer be the final frontier. Instead of getting the Millenium blues, everyone should take a look at NASA’s enthusiasm and jump on the new space race bandwagon.
Beardsley, Tim. “The Way to Go in Space.” Scientific American August 1999: 1-10.
DiChristina, Mariette. “Star Travelers.” Popular Science June 1999: 54-59. Harris, Henry M. “Light Sails.” Scientific American August 1999: 56-60.
Morehead, Albert and Loy. The New American Webster Handy College Dictionary. 3rd
ed. New York: Signet, 1995.
Powell, James R. “Compact Nuclear Rockets.” Scientific American July 1999: 34-43.
Rayman, Dr. Marc. “Understanding the Space” Popular Science March 1999: 3-9.
Stern, David P. “Far-out Pathways to Space: Solar Sails.” NASA Homepage updated 3
April 1999. www.istp.gsfc,nasangov/stargaze/Solsail.htm.
“The New Millennium Program.” NASA Homepage updated 12 August 1999.