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mathematician and physicist, considered one of the greatest
scientist in history, who made important contributions to many
fields of science. His discoveries and theories laid the
foundation for much of the progress in science since his time.
Newton was one of the inventors of the branch of mathematics
called Calculus. He also solved the mysteries of light and
optics. Formulated the three laws of motions, and derived from
them the law of universal gravitation.
Newton's birth place was at Woolsthorpe, near Grantham in
Linclonshire. Where he lived with his widowed mother, Until
around his third birthday. At this time his mother remarried,
leaving him in the care of his Grandmother and sent to grammar
school in Grantham. Later, in the Summer of 1661, he was sent to
Trinity Collage, at the University of Cambridge. Newton received
his bachelors degree in 1665. After an intermission of nearly two
years to avoid the plague, Newton returned to Trinity, Which
elected him to a fellowship in 1667. He received his master
degree in 1668. Newton ignored much of the established curriculum
of the University to pursue his own interests: mathematics and
By joining them in what he called the Fluxional method,
Newton developed in the autumn of 1666 a kind of mathematics that
is now known as calculus. Was a new and powerful method that
carried modern mathematics above the level of Greek geometry.
Although Newton was its inventor, he did not introduce calculus
into European Mathematics.
Always Fearful of publication and Criticism. Newton kept his
Discovery to himself. However, enough was known of his abilities
to effect his appointment in 1669as a Luciasian Professor of
Mathematics at the University of Cambbridge.
Optics was another area of Newton's early interests. In
trying at explain now colors occur, he arrived at the idea that
sunlight is a heterogeneous blend of different rays each of, which
represents a different color-and that reflections and
refraction cause colors to appear by separating the blend into
its components. Newton demonstrated his theory of colors by
passing the beam of sunlight through a type of prism, which split
the beam into separate colors.
In 1672 Newton sent a brief exposition of his theory of
colors to the Royal Society in London. In 1704 however, Newton
published appliqués, which explained his theories in details. During
the following two and a half years, Newton established the modern
science of dynamics by formulating his three laws of motion.
Newton applied there laws to Kempler's law of orbital
motion-formulated by the German astronomer Johannes Kempler-and
derived the law of Universal Gravitation. Newton is probably best
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all bodies in space and on earth are affected by the force of
Gravity, and another thing he invented was the Reflecting
Telescope. He published this theory in his book Philosophiae
Natural is Principia Mathematica in 1687. This book marked a
turning point in the history of science; it also ensured that its
author could never regain his privacy.
In the same year, 1687, Newton helped lead Cambridge's
resistance to the efforts of King James II to make the University
a Catholic institution, After the English Revolution in 1688,
which drove James from England, the University elected Newton one
of its representatives in a special convening of the county's
In the summer of 1693 Newton showed symptoms of a severe
emotional disorder. Although he regained his health, his creative
period had come to an end. Newton's connections with the leaders
of the new regime in England led to his appointment as warden.
And later master of Royal Mint in London, where he lived after
1696. In 1703 the Royal Society elected him President, an office
he held for the rest of his life. As President, he ordered the
immediate Publication of the Astronomical Observations of the
First Astronomer Royal of England, John Flamsteed. Newton needed
these observations to perfect his Lunar theory.
Newton also compiled the book of evidence that the society
published. The effects of the quarrel lingered nearly until his
death in 1727.
In addition to science, Newton also showed an interest in
Alchemy, Mysticism, and Theology. Many pages of his notes and
writing-particularly from the later years of his career are
devoted to these topics. However, historians have found little
connection between these interests and Newton's scientific works.