radio-imaging effectiveness

radio-imaging effectiveness

Length: 1236 words (3.5 double-spaced pages)

Rating: Excellent

Open Document

Essay Preview

More ↓
Radiation can be used in both diagnosis and therapeutic manners. The radiation emitted from radioisotopes can destroy tissue and in the therapeutic use: the destruction of cancerous and other dangerous tissues. And with diagnosis the gamma particle pass through the body tissues with minimal damage to a gamma camera.

To evaluate the effectiveness of PET, SPECT, MRI and X-rays, we first need some basic knowledge on how each of them work.

PET stands for positron emission tomography and works by an instrument collecting radiation emitted from a radioisotope injected the patient’ body. The strengths of emission are recorded by a gamma camera, which has a series of scintillation crystals, each connected to a photomultiplier tube. The crystals convert the gamma rays, emitted from the patient, to photons of light, and the photomultiplier tubes convert and amplify the photons to electrical signals. These electrical signals are then processed by a computer to generate images. The table is then moved, and the process is repeated, resulting in a series of thin slice images of the body over the region of interest (e.g. brain, breast, liver). These thin slice images can be assembled into a three dimensional representation of the patient's body

Nowadays, PET scanning devices are most often used in conjunction with CT scanners, so that a more accurate image can be observed by the doctor for easier diagnosis of diseases or disorders.

SPECT (Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography) works in a way much the same to PET. But the radioactive substances used in SPECT (Xenon-133, Technetium-99, Iodine-123) have longer decay times than those used in PET, and emit single instead of double gamma rays

MRI has a more complex principle for its function; it works by creating a magnetic field so strong that the hydrogen protons in the body are forced into alignment with the magnetic field. Short bursts of radio waves are sent from the scanner into your body. The radio waves knock the protons from their position. When the burst of radio waves stops, the protons go back into position. They realign back to being in parallel with the magnetic field. As the protons realign, in a process known as relaxation, they emit tiny radio signals. A receiving device in the scanner detects these signals. The type of tissue can be interpreted from the strength of the signal emitted.

Most of the hydrogen atoms in the body are in water molecules.

How to Cite this Page

MLA Citation:
"radio-imaging effectiveness." 15 Oct 2019

Need Writing Help?

Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.

Check your paper »

Computed Tomography and Radionuclide Imaging Essay

- Introduction Computed tomography (CT) and Radionuclide imaging (RNI) are both a form of diagnostic imaging. Since they have been first introduced in medical imaging they both suffered a huge development over the years in terms of image acquisition and also patient radiation protection. The following essay it is going to focus on just a few important things that make CT and RNI similar and different in the same time. However this subject can be discussed in much depth, the focus is going to be on the similarities and differences of the physics imaging methods and also a small awareness of biological effects and radiation protection....   [tags: Compare and Contrast, Diagnostic Imaging]

Research Papers
991 words (2.8 pages)

Sonographic, Imaging Modalities and Their Corresponding Difficulties Essay example

- SONOGRAPHIC IMAGING MODALITIES & THEIR CORRESPONDING DIFFICULTIES According to the CDC, in adults over the age of 20, 69.2% are overweight and 35.9% are overweight (2010). With the average weight of the general adult patient generally increasing, this makes jobs harder for many in the healthcare field, especially sonographers. Abdominal imaging is generally deep imaging with a great deal of force required to push down into the tissue in order to create diagnostic image. Oftentimes, these are long exams with multiple organs and/or vessels to examine....   [tags: vascular imaging, obstetrical ultrasound ]

Research Papers
1566 words (4.5 pages)

The Field Of Medical Imaging Essay

- Introduction: Advancements in the field of science and technology have played a vital role in the wellbeing of human beings. As the technology and techniques evolved in the field of Medical Imaging the diagnosis become easier and earlier detection of any abnormality allowed a timely cure resulted in saving many human lives. Cancers are one of common cause of human deaths all over the world in both men and women. Breast Cancer in particular is one of the most common cancer in women, many factors could contribute in the development of cancer including Age, lifestyle (consumption of Alcohol or drugs), and Inheritance of gene from mother....   [tags: Breast cancer, Cancer, Medical imaging, Oncology]

Research Papers
1363 words (3.9 pages)

Fm Radio And Satellite Radio Essay

- On writing assignment two, we had to compare and contrast two items and write an essay about them. In this paper I chose FM radio and Satellite radio; because I want to get in the radio field after graduation and I thought it would be good to know the difference. I already knew the basics of radio but I wanted to dig deep and find out how it’s ran and why people pay for satellite radio. Although this was the second writing assignment in class it was the most challenging for me because I had to take my personal feelings out of it and give the reader facts so they can choice what’s best for them....   [tags: Radio, Frequency modulation, AM broadcasting]

Research Papers
828 words (2.4 pages)

Essay on Implementing Radio in Somalia

- Implementing Radio in Somalia Implementation of radio technology in helping underdeveloped countries is a cheap and effective solution in spreading education, health information, and news about local and foreign affairs. Radio can reach the most people (approximately an area of a 20 km radius) with the least amount of money, energy and effort. In comparison to Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) and Internet connectivity, radio management is easily teachable and requires less man-hours in training; Internet technology on the other hand, while perhaps more sophisticated, requires longer training hours and more expensive equipment....   [tags: Radio Technology Somalia Essays]

Research Papers
3794 words (10.8 pages)

The Symbolic Meaning of the Radio in The Enormous Radio Essay

- The Symbolic Meaning of the Radio in The Enormous Radio       Many authors use the personification of inanimate objects to symbolize the feelings and expressions of their characters. One example of this is in John Cheever’s short story, "The Enormous Radio." Although critics argue that the characteristics of the radio are the opposite of those of Jim and Irene Westcott, the radio actually reflects the couple’s life. Even though in the beginning of the story the Westcotts’ old radio is outdated and constantly malfunctioning, it has the same innocence and simplicity as the couple....   [tags: Enormous Radio Essays]

Research Papers
657 words (1.9 pages)

Essay on The Difficult Lesson of The Enormous Radio

- The Difficult Lesson of  The Enormous Radio   "The Enormous Radio" by John Cheever begins with Jim and Irene Westcott who are an average American couple with an average American family. Cheever describes them as middle-aged, having two young children, a pleasant home, and a sufficient income. On the surface they seem to have a perfect life, but underneath this is not the case. In the course of the story, Irene’s imperfections are revealed by a hideous radio. The radio was bought to give the Westcott’s listening pleasure, but then they discover it can hear all the neighbors’ conversations....   [tags: Enormous Radio]

Research Papers
969 words (2.8 pages)

Essay about History of Radio

- Radio History      The radio has evolved over time. The radio we listen to today has a different format, purpose, viewer reach, and clarity than it did before the 1950s. The radio has survived the threat of the television industry by changing with the times. It has been dealt with in the law through acts and the creation of the government regulating agency (FCC). Today the radio is the cheapest and most affective way to communicate with everyone around the world. It began with the invention of the telegraph by Samuel Morse in 1844 and developed as the knowledgeable minds of inventors and engineers worked from the late 1800s to the present to create the powerful communications medium we know...   [tags: American History Radio Media Essays]

Research Papers
2074 words (5.9 pages)

Radio Waves Essay

- Radiowaves are the oscillations of magnetic waves by varying the modulation to generate different signals which can be converted into information such as sound, video, or digital communication. As these waves pass through a conductor, an alternating current is generated and this can be converted into usable information. As one could see from the picture above, radio waves are the the electromagnetic waves with wave lengthes between 1mm and 10 Mm. This converts to a frequency range of 300Ghz to 30Hz, respectively....   [tags: physics radio wave]

Free Essays
363 words (1 pages)

Radio Advertising Essay

- Radio advertising would be impossible without the radio. Radio waves were discovered and studied by Heinrich Hertz in 1867 (Schoenherr, 2001). Guglielmo Marconi invented a transmitter in 1894 and formed the first wireless telegraph and signal company in 1897 (Schoenherr, 2001). Reginald Fessenden of Canada invented the continuous-wave voice transmitter and sold it to Westinghouse in 1910. Several amateurs began to broadcast information from music to news over the airwaves as soon as crystal radio receivers became available from 1912 to 1921 (Schoenherr, 2001)....   [tags: Radio Marketing Ads Advertisement]

Free Essays
1701 words (4.9 pages)

Related Searches

Each type of tissue has different water content. So, the strength of the signal emitted from different body tissues varies. The computer creates a picture based on the strength and location of the radio signals emitted from the body. (A different colour or shade for each strength of signal.)

CT scans work by having many X-ray shots taken. The X-ray tube and detectors are situated oppositely each other and they can take numerous X-ray images as they rotate at all angles around the patient. The machine records X-ray slices across the body in a spiral motion. The computer varies the intensity of the X-rays in order to scan each type of tissue with the optimum power. After the patient passes through the machine, the computer combines all the information from each scan to form a detailed image of the body. It's not usually necessary to scan the entire body, of course. More often, doctors will scan only a small section.

X-ray images are essentially photos that use X-rays instead of visible light to expose the film. When the X-rays hit the film, they expose it just as light would. Since bone, fat, muscle, tumours and other masses all absorb X-rays at different levels; the image on the film lets you see different (distinct) structures inside the body because of the different levels of exposure on the film. An x-ray tube releases the x-rays at the patient while an x-ray camera on the other side of the patient records the pattern of X-ray light that passes all the way through the patient's body. The X-ray camera uses the same film technology as an ordinary camera, but X-ray light sets off the chemical reaction instead of visible light. Doctors can bring different materials into focus by varying the intensity of the X-ray beam.

The provision of materials used, that is the isotopes needed for the diagnosis and their half lives greatly effects peoples judgement on how effective the mechanism is. MRI requires no radioisotopes for its use, which is a major benefit. Xrays and CT scans also do not require a radioisotope for injection.
PET and SPECT machines, however, do require radioactive isotopes for diagnosis. The isotopes used in PET generally are ones with extremely short half lives whilst those used in SPECT are usually ones that have longer half lives, but are still relatively short.
Isotopes used in PET include:
·     Carbon-11               Half Life: 20.4 minutes
·     Fluorine-18               Half Life: 109.8 minutes
·     Nitrogen-13           Half Life: 9.96 minutes
·     Oxygen-15               Half Life: 2.03 minutes

Isotopes used in SPECT include
·     Iodine-123                Half Life: 13.2 hours
·     Technetium-99m           Half Life: 6.02 hours
·     Xenon-133                Half Life: 5.245 days
·     Indium-111                Half Life: 2.83 days

It is these half live that greatly affect the efficiency of the mechanisms as radioactive decay damages tissues and so obviously the machine that utilizes the radioisotopes with shorter half lives is better for our health as these radioisotopes can make people quite sick.

Other aspects that greatly affect our judgment on the effectiveness of the machine include the time it takes for a scan the accuracy and nature of diagnosis, the skills needed to run the machine, the cost of the machine and materials and therefore the cost passed on to the patient and finally, the facilities needed to be used by the machine.

In the case of MRI, a normal scan usually takes between 30 and 60 minutes, of course this varies depending on the body part being scanned, the immobility of the patient, and many other external factors. In a study undertaken that compared full-body dual-modality positron emission tomography and computed tomography (PET/CT) scan technology with full-body MRI in 98 patients. Eighty-two percent of the patients were referred for primary tumour staging, the rest were referred for suspected tumour recurrence. The researchers found that MRI was found to be accurate in only 52 percent of the patients, and in most cases the scans took longer for MRI than PET.

Although, this is probably not the case in most day-to-day situations. MRI and PET are used for many different problems. After proper consultancy with a doctor the best mechanism for diagnosis should be decided upon, as there is little variation in the cost of a scan. MRI is ideal for:
·     Diagnosing multiple sclerosis (MS)
·     Diagnosing tumours of the pituitary gland and brain
·     Diagnosing infections in the brain, spine or joints
·     Visualizing torn ligaments in the wrist, knee and ankle
·     Visualizing shoulder injuries
·     Diagnosing tendonitis
·     Evaluating masses in the soft tissues of the body
·     Evaluating bone tumours, cysts and bulging or herniated discs in the spine
·     Diagnosing strokes in their earliest stages
The average cost of an MRI scan is currently around $518. Medicare rebates over $350 of this leaving patients paying an average of $168 out of pocket expenses for a scan. The average out of pocket expenses for a scan was $55 cheaper, but medicare decided to lower the amount rebated in June this year in order to fund 23 new machines. Each MRI machine cost about 2 million dollars.
Return to