Radio waves

Radio waves

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Science Competition
Space Timeline

This below is my timeline of space it should explain the many theories of how the universe came to be. It should explain about how galaxy was formed and what stage our star; the sun is in at this point in this present moment. The Time Line will take you from the moment it was created to the moment it will die. It will show each step in as much detail as I can find.

The Big Bang Theory
I am going to start the timeline with the big bang theory as people/scientists believe that it was at this point at which our universe was created
The diagram below shows the early stages of the universe after the big bang. I am going to show you step by step how each stage happened and what it meant. The short section of the timeline below shows the short period of time, 300 million years after the big bang.

Stage 1 The Big Bang-The universe began with an explosion that generated space and time, as well as all the matter and energy the universe has and will ever hold. For a small fraction of a second, the universe was an infinitely dense, hot fireball. The present theory described a peculiar form of energy that could suddenly push out the fabric of space. On a rare occasion, a process called "Inflation" can cause a vast expansion of space filled with this energy. The inflationary expansion could only be stopped when this energy had transformed into matter and energy as we know it.
Stage 2 Universe Shaped- After inflation, one millionth of a second after the Big Bang, the universe continued to expand but not nearly as quickly as it had done. As it expanded, it became less dense and cooled down. The most basic forces in nature were discovered: first gravity, then the strong forces then the weak followed by the electromagnetic forces. By the first second, the universe was made up of elementary (basic) particles and energy basic elements such as: quarks, electrons, photons, neutrinos and less familiar types. These particles smashed together to form protons and neutrons.

Stage 3 Basic Elements Formed- 3 seconds after the universe had shaped Protons and neutrons came together to form the nuclei of simple elements such as: hydrogen, helium and lithium. It took another 300,000 years for electrons to be captured into orbits around those nuclei to form stable atoms.

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Stage 4 The Radiation Era - The first major era in the history of the universe was one in which most of the energy was in the form of radiation -- different wavelengths of light, X rays, radio waves and ultraviolet rays. This energy was the remnant of the primordial fireball, and as the universe expands, the waves of radiation are stretched and diluted until today; they make up the faint glow of microwaves which bathe the entire universe.
Stage 5 Matter Domination Era- At that moment, the energy in the matter and the energy in the radiation were equal. But as the vast expansion continued, the waves of light were stretched to lower energy, whilst the matter travelled onwards largely unaffected. At about this time, neutral atoms had formed as electrons link up with hydrogen and helium nuclei. The microwave background radiation hails from this moment, and thus gave us a direct picture of how matter was distributed at this early time.
Stage 6 Stars and Galaxies Formed- Gravity amplified the slight irregularities in the density of the primordial gas. Even as the universe continued to expand rapidly, pockets of gas became more and more dense. Stars ignited within these pockets, and groups of stars became the earliest galaxies. This point was still perhaps 12 to 15 billion years before the present. The Hubble Space Telescope recently captured some of the earliest galaxies ever viewed. They appear as tiny blue dots in the Hubble Deep Field, the image on the left.
Here are some of the pictures of Galaxies I managed to find.

That concludes the first part of my timeline about the period of time after the big bang. The next part of my timeline is the period of time which was before the present time but after the Big Bang Period. The diagram below shows the period of time called Time before Present.

Stage 7 Birth of the Sun- 5 Billion years after the Big bang our Sun was born. The sun was formed within a cloud of gas in a spiralling arm of the Milky Way Galaxy. A vast disk of gas and debris that swirled around our new star gave birth to our planets, moons, and asteroids.
The image on the left was taken from the Hubble Space Telescope, showing a newborn star in the Orion Nebula surrounded by a disk of dust and gas that may one day collapse into planets, moons and asteroids. Just like our sun did 5 billion years ago.

Stage 8 Earliest Life- 3.8 million after the birth of our sun the planet earth had cooled and an atmosphere was created. Microscopic living cells, neither plants nor animals, began to evolve and flourish in earth's many volcanic environments.

Stage 9 Primitive Animals Appeared- These were mostly flatworms, jelly fish and algae. By 570 million years before the present, large numbers of creatures with hard shells suddenly appeared
Stage 10 The First Mammals Appeared- The first mammals evolved from a class of reptiles which evolved with mammalian traits (characteristics), such as a segmented jaw and a series of bones that make up the inner ear.
Stage 11 Dinosaurs Became Extinct-An asteroid or comet slammed into the northern part of the Yucatan Peninsula in Mexico 65 million years after the mammals had first evolved. This world-wide cataclysm brought the end to the long age of the dinosaurs, and allowed mammals to diversify and expand their ranges.
Stage 12 Homo sapiens Evolved- Our earliest ancestors evolved in Africa from a line of creatures that descended from apes.

Stage 13 Supernova 1987A Explodes-A star exploded in a dwarf galaxy known as the Large Magellanic Cloud that lies just beyond the Milky Way. The star, was a blue super giant/red giant 25 times more massive than our Sun. Such an explosion distributed all the common elements such as Oxygen, Carbon, Nitrogen, Calcium and Iron into space where they enriched clouds of Hydrogen and Helium which formed new stars. They also created the heavier elements (such as gold, silver, lead, and uranium) and distributed these as well. Their remnants generated the cosmic rays which lead to mutation and evolution in living cells. These supernovae(plural), then, were key to the evolution of the Universe and to life itself.
That concludes that part of the time line the next part of the time line is the part which is closest to the time in which we are living in now. We probably find these discoveries and events the most familiar because they are the closest to the present. This part of the timeline is called the AD era because the were all after the death of Christ. Most of the dates will make more sense probably than the last couple of parts of the timeline.

(1054) Crab Super Nova Appeared- A new star in the constellation Taurus had appeared which was brighter than Venus. Chinese, Japanese, and Stage Native American observers recorded the appearance of a supernova (image at left).
The remnants of this explosion are visible today as the Crab Nebula. Within the nebula, astronomers have found a pulsar, the ultra-dense remains of a star that blew up.

1609 Five years after the appearance of the great supernova of 1604, Galileo builds his first telescope. He saw the moons of Jupiter, Saturn's rings, the phases of Venus, and the stars in the Milky Way. He published the news the following year in The Starry Messinger.
1665 At the age of 23, young Isaac Newton realized that the gravitational force accounted for falling bodies on earth as well as the motion of the moon and the planets in orbit. This was a revolutionary step in the history of thought. One set of laws, discovered and tested on our planet, would be seen to govern the entire universe.
1905 Roughly 3 centuries after Isaac Newton’s discovery about gravity Albert Einstein, scientist, replaced Newton's model of gravity with his own theory of relativity. Predictions of black holes and an expanding Universe are immediate consequences of this revolutionary theory which remains unchallenged today.
1929 The astronomer Edwin Hubble used the new 100-inch telescope on Mt. Wilson in Southern California to discover that the farther away a galaxy is, the more its light is shifted to the red. And the redder a galaxy's light, the faster it is moving away from us.

Discovery Of Quasars (1960)-2 astronomers Allan Sandage and Thomas Matthews found sources of intense radio energy, they decided to call them Quasi Stellar Radio Sources. Four years later, Maarten Schmidt discovered that these sources lie at the edge of the visible universe. In recent years, astronomers have realized that there are gigantic black holes at the centres of young galaxies into which matter is heated to high temperatures and glows brightly as it rushes in. The picture on the rite shows what the black hole looks like when it is sucking in high temperature matter.
Microwave Background Radiation (1964) - Scientist discovered that microwave radiation bathes our earth from all over space. The radiations remain as the afterglow of the big bang.
Discovery Of Pulsars (1967)- A graduate student, Jocelyn Bell, and her professor, Anthony Hewish discovered intense pulsating sources of radio energy, known as pulsars. Pulsars were the first known examples of neutron stars, extremely dense objects that form in the wake of some supernovae. The crab pulsar, the tiny star in the middle of the Hubble Space Telescope image on the left, is the remnant of the bright supernova.

Light From Supernova Reaches Earth-(1987) A light from this supernova reached earth, 170,000 years after the star exploded, 1987. Astronomers rushed to telescopes in the southern hemisphere to study the progress of the explosion/supernova and view the perfect models describing the violent deaths of large stars.
Hubble Space Telescope launched (1990) The twelve-ton telescope, equipped with a 94-inch mirror, and was sent into orbit by astronauts aboard the space shuttle Discovery. Within two months, a flaw in its mirror was discovered, placing in jeopardy. It was the largest investment ever in astronomy.
Big Bang Theory Confirmed (1990) - Astronomers used the new Cosmic Background Explorer satellite to take a detailed reading of the microwave background radiation. Those reading proved the big bang theory. Two years later, scientists used the same instrument to discover small variations in the background radiation. That showed the first evidence of the universes structure.
Hubble Telescope Repaired (1993)- The final part of this section of the timeline, the closest event that’s happened during our lifetime is the repair of the Hubble space telescope. Astronauts aboard the space shuttle Endeavor succeed in correcting Hubble's flawed optics
This is the final part of my universe timeline explain scientifically what man kind can expect from the universe in the years to come.

Stellar Error Ends-Astronomers assume that the universe will gradually die away, provided it keeps on expanding and does not recollapse under the pull of its own gravity. From 10,000 years to 100 trillion years after the Big Bang, most of the energy generated by the universe is and will be in the form of stars burning hydrogen and other elements in their cores.
Degenerate Era Begins-This era will be up to Ten Trillion, Trillion, Trillion years after the Big Bang. Most of the mass that we can currently see in the universe, e.g.- stars and planets, will be locked up in degenerate stars, those that have blown up and collapsed into black holes and neutron stars, or have withered into white dwarfs.
Black Hole Era- After the degenerated era where all the protons have decayed and all particles have given all the energy. The only stellar-like objects remaining are black holes of widely disparate masses, which are actively evaporating during this era.
The Dark Era- At this late time, protons have decayed and black holes will have evaporated. Only the waste products from these processes will remain, the universe as we know it has dissipated.
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