Simulation-supported Wargaming in MNE 4

Simulation-supported Wargaming in MNE 4

Length: 1121 words (3.2 double-spaced pages)

Rating: Excellent

Open Document

Essay Preview

More ↓
Simulation-supported Wargaming in MNE 4





1. Introduction
The objective of this document is to emphasize the importance of simulation as a measure of complexity reduction and planner’s tool for decision support in MNE 4’s Effects-Based Planning (EBP) process. Starting with an overview of the underlying principles of Wargaming and Modeling and Simulation (M&S), the outcome of this abstract is a ‘Process for the application of simulation to support Wargaming in MNE 4’. This document may also serve as a basis for MNE 4 design and execution decision-makers in order to determine the value of simulation as a wargaming tool for MNE 4.

2. The Art of Wargaming
Wargaming and Course-of-Action Analysis are approved instruments of military planning in order to determine the feasibility and validity of military options and plans. Traditionally wargaming was conducted by exposing Blue military options to the challenges of Red Team’s counter-actions just using people’s brain, pen and paper.
Today, the complexity of the battlefield has experienced significant increases due to the challenges of asymmetric menaces after the end of the Cold War. The concept of Effects-Based Operations (EBO) tries to embrace these new conditions based on ambitious processes like Knowledge Base Development (KBD). Furthermore, military planning and operation execution have to cope not only with a highly complex and dynamic adversary’s system conducting asymmetric operations, but also with great challenges on the Blue side, such as the coordination and interaction of multiple coalition partners and different agencies and organizations in a non-linear battlespace. Experiences from recent months and years have undoubtedly proven that EBO cannot be successfully conducted without adequate support by IT tools. Especially the various wargaming activities within EBP cannot be properly accomplished by just using traditional measures. Military planners desperately need automated tools in order to handle data masses, multi-dimensional and dynamic interrelations within the adversary’s system and own (blue) forces and instruments.

3. Simulation as an Analysis Method
Basically, there are two major approaches for answering optimization questions: the analytical approach and the numerical approach. As the analytic approach tries to exactly calculate results considering the objective function, limitation variables and all other relevant factors, the numerical approach allows only for approximate results often using iterative or even heuristic processes. Nevertheless, numerical methods have a far more practical weight (see Reference 3) since in opposition to the analytical methods they can handle complex systems with great varieties of variables. Simulation is one of a whole set of numerical methods and additionally, it comprises another major advantage especially useful for wargaming problems: it models dynamics.

How to Cite this Page

MLA Citation:
"Simulation-supported Wargaming in MNE 4." 123HelpMe.com. 14 Oct 2019
    <https://www.123helpme.com/view.asp?id=82127>.

Need Writing Help?

Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.

Check your paper »

Essay on Analysis Of The Book ' Wargaming For Leaders '

- The book “Wargaming for Leaders” teaches, we as current or future leaders the art of simulation which can play a vital role in developing a strategy for success. Without a thorough plan and a means to test this plan, the individual leader has only presumptions and theory to guide his decision. With the use of simulation, the organization can test differing strategies and they can reduce the chance of a bad outcome. The text begins by examining a series of wargames developed for the military and the federal government to determine the best options for growing problems around the world (Mark Herman)....   [tags: Nuclear weapon, World War II, Nuclear warfare]

Research Papers
1040 words (3 pages)

The Simulation Day At Blackpool Hospital Essay

- Description: Recently returned from my Christmas break, I participated in the Simulation day at Blackpool Hospital. Once at the training centre, we were given an outline and introduction to the simulation training. We were given a refreshment course on the basic life support where we could ask questions, which helped prepare us for the simulations. Following this we were split in groups and completed our first scenario. The simulation was conducted in front of the instructors and our peers who were hidden behind a one way mirror....   [tags: Communication, Better, Improve, Simulation]

Research Papers
1270 words (3.6 pages)

The Electoral Simulation Of The Election Simulation Essay

- Throughout the Election Simulation, I worked with my cartoonist group Fariha, Tasniya, Ariane, and Flo to come up with ideas to draw for the newspaper based on what we learned and observed about all the Democratic and Republican Candidates. We worked together to come up with a logo for the newspaper and after we decided on the logo for HawkWord with the title HawkWord and the hawk in the middle. We transformed it to the computer to edit the logo. This was a great experience and I enjoyed doing this because as the media group we were all working in different groups and assigned different stories and topics so that our newspaper for HawkWord was successful....   [tags: Voting, Democracy, Elections, Newspaper]

Research Papers
2019 words (5.8 pages)

Essay on Real World Exposure and CVA Simulation

- ... This is equivalent to adjusted risk-neutral pricing for a given subset of stochastic paths, though this pricing is done independently at all forward model steps in contrast to the risk-neutral pricing with market states evolved from the same spot market data by a stochastic process under a common measure. Below we outline this straightforward and well-known implementation methodology yet we further enhance it to join real-world simulation specifics with the evident benefits of risk-neutral American Monte Carlo pricing....   [tags: Solvency II and Nested Simulations]

Research Papers
1139 words (3.3 pages)

Business Regulation Simulation: Alumina Inc. Essay

- Business Regulation Simulation: Alumina Inc. Alumina is a 4 billion dollar aluminum manufacturer based in the US. Although the company operates out of 8 different countries, 70% of Alumina's sales derive from the US market. Five years ago, during a regular compliance inspection, Alumina was found to be in violation of environmental discharge norms due to high levels of PAH (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon). Following this discovery, the EPA ordered a clean up and Alumina was found to be in compliance during subsequent inspections....   [tags: Business Regulation Simulation Analysis]

Free Essays
1026 words (2.9 pages)

Essay about MNE Risks and Corporate Responsibility

- Extractive industry has specific nature. They involve some environmental damages which can be of long term. Metal mining for example: this industry involves some highly poisonous and harmful substances. Oil and gas also involve high amount of environmental risk such as oil spills and gas flaring. Besides ecological risks, social features should be taken into consideration such as the relationship with MNEs, local community and the government. In some host countries, MNEs connection has been professed for contributing to potential negativity that could have an adverse impact on the human rights situation....   [tags: oil, metal, compliance]

Research Papers
519 words (1.5 pages)

Simulation Assignment Essay

- Abstract The simulation exercise consisted of a scenario in which the student was to be a manager at an up and coming facility. There were 3 sets of tasks to be accomplished, and the results of the student's choices given immediately to the student. Each choice affected the outcome in some way, whether positive or negative. Simulation Paper Upon completion of this exercise, I discovered how truly difficult it is to make managerial decisions. The adage "You can never please everyone all of the time" holds true....   [tags: Manager Management Simulation Exercise]

Free Essays
865 words (2.5 pages)

Essay on Interactive Simulations : The Simulation

- Balance Alexis lytle PhET interactive simulations The simulation features a lever and several weights that can be placed on the lever. The simulation calculates which side has more force acting upon it by using m1*d1 + m2*d2..., where m is the mass of the object and d is the distance to the fulcrum. The simulation finds the totals for both sides and compares the two numbers. The larger number will move downwards. The simulation provides bricks, people, and mystery objects, all with different weights in order to enable you to learn how to figure out how to find the weight of an object that has not been given to you....   [tags: Force, Mass, Torque, Classical mechanics]

Research Papers
1234 words (3.5 pages)

Understanding Multinational Enterprises (MNE’s) Essay

- INDEX 1. Multinational Enterprises (MNE’s). 2. Structure of MNE’s. ➢ Horizontally integrated MNE’s. ➢ Vertically integrated MNE’s ➢ Diversified MNE’s 3. Generic strategies of MNE’s. ➢ Global integration strategy. ➢ Host country focus strategy. ➢ Hybrid international strategy. 4. SWOT analysis of MNE’s. 5. Advantages of MNE’s. 6. Disadvantages of MNE’s 7. When is a company classified as an MNE’s. 8. Top ten MNE’s in the world. 9. Reasons why companies would want to be a MNE. 10. Emerging market....   [tags: globalization, global integration strategy]

Research Papers
957 words (2.7 pages)

Simulation Essay

- Analysis of the Stock Market Simulation There are many risks that people take in their lives. Yet, investing in the stock market is one of the riskiest things to do. All the money that has been saved over years, possibly saved over a lifetime, could all be lost in the blink of an eye. The Great Depression was triggered by the most well-known stock market crash in history, another crash happened in 1987, and one could happen any moment. However, people invest to make money and through this simulation strategies and a basic understanding were compiled to get a perspective on the risk and tasks involved in investing....   [tags: essays research papers]

Research Papers
1296 words (3.7 pages)

Related Searches



4. JOANA
The German simulation system ‘Joint Operations Army Navy Air Force’ (JOANA) was developed by IABG on behalf of the Bundeswehr Transformation Center since 1999. It is a collection of single simulation systems representing military services and non-military aspects such as political and economical systems. JOANA is a constructive and stochastic model and most importantly, it involves different automatisms for closing the systems in order to allow the execution of simulation runs faster than real time.
Detailed documentation will be made available in IWS.

5. Process of simulation-supported Wargaming and its integration into MNE 4 Design
The following described process supports step ADRM 2 (Wargame options) and SPR2 (Wargame the plan as depicted in the synchronization matrix) as designed in EBP CONOPS V0.70 (see reference 1).




Figure 1: Major activities of Wargaming Process

The wargaming process mainly consists of four major activities (see Figure 1). Activity 1 “Implement basic scenario” serves as the process’ cornerstone and has to be executed only prior to the actual military options development conducted by the planners. It involves the implementation of the relevant elements of the system, e.g. terrain, infrastructure, geographical distribution and deployment of different parties, within the JOANA system.
Activity 2 ”Model Options” (see Figure 2) ensures that planner’s options (courses of action) are properly represented within the simulation. It is mandatory that the wargaming personnel - which is very likely not fully involved in the planning process – completely understand the options (including all assumptions, constraints, restraints, desired effects etc.) and equally important the objective/analysis questions, which also have to be formulated by the planners. Input of this activity are the options and the analysis questions, products are the implemented options, as different scenarios, within JOANA.




Figure 2: “Modeling of Options” activity

The next activity ”Execute simulation runs” is mainly a technical issue. The different scenarios will be run in, if possible multiple times, in a faster than real time mode. The subsequent data evaluation can be prepared simultaneously (see Figure 3).






Figure 3: “Execute Simulation Runs” activity

Activity 4 ”Evaluate Results” (see Figure 4) deals with reviewing and interpreting the data produced by the different simulation runs in order to produce wargaming results relevant and beneficial to planners. Results shall provide an aggregated overview of the option’s feasibility, answer the analysis questions as precisely as possible and give further ‘not asked for’ insights, e.g. unintended effects like a not expected food shortage in refugee camp X due to extensive checkpoint controls along Route A causing significant supply delays.






Figure 4: “Evaluate Results”activity

A single execution of this process without any iteration or loops may take between 210 and 630 minutes, depending on the number and complexity of options and analysis questions as well as the scenario extent. This time consideration implies that the wargaming process should be executed during the night, in between two experiment days. The handing over of options and analysis questions from planners to M&S planners including the opportunity for short Q&A would be at the end of experiment day N. It would be done using the CD CIE. Day N+1 would then start with the presentation of the wargaming results to the planners within the collaboration part of the CIE. Thus EBP execution would not be delayed or disturbed by the simulation support.
Personnel considerations imply that at least one Wargaming Cell member (M&S planner) needs to participate in the planning process and thus serve as a mediator between both groups. Still open questions regarding concrete Blue Cell – Wargaming Cell coordination, formats of options and analysis results, personnel and training requirements and others are to be solved after the decision of using JOANA for Wargaming support in MNE 4 is final.

6. Summary
Wargaming steps in EBP are crucial to determine feasibility and validity of options and the overall operational plan. The complexity and dynamics of the system require the modeling and simulation support. The described process provides a first cornerstone for a successful simulation-supported wargaming in MNE 4.

References
1 - MN EBO CONOPS V.0.70
2 - JOANA documentation
3 - Simulation Modeling and Analysis A. M. Law, W. D. Kelton, Third Edition; P. 2

Return to 123HelpMe.com