Essay PreviewMore ↓
BOILING POINTS AND STRUCTURES OF HYDROCARBONS
The boiling points of organic compounds can give important clues to other physical properties. A liquid boils when its vapor pressure is equal to the atmospheric pressure. Vapor pressure is determined by the kinetic energy of molecules. Kinetic energy is related to temperature and the mass and velocity of the molecules. When the temperature reaches the boiling point, the average kinetic energy of the liquid particles is sufficient to overcome the forces of attraction that hold molecules in the liquid state. Then these molecules break away from the liquid forming the gas state.
Vapor pressure is caused by an equilibrium between molecules in the gaseous state and molecules in the liquid state. When molecules in the liquid state have sufficient kinetic energy, they may escape from the surface and turn into a gas. Molecules with the most independence in individual motions achieve sufficient kinetic energy (velocities) to escape at lower temperatures. The vapor pressure will be higher and therefore the compound will boil at a lower temperature.
BOILING POINT PRINCIPLE:
Molecules which strongly interact or bond with each other through a variety of intermolecular forces can not move easily or rapidly and therefore, do not achieve the kinetic energy necessary to escape the liquid state. Therefore, molecules with strong intermolecular forces will have higher boiling points. This is a consequence of the increased kinetic energy needed to break the intermolecular bonds so that individual molecules may escape the liquid as gases.
THE BOILING POINT CAN BE A ROUGH MEASURE OF THE AMOUNT OF ENERGY NECESSARY TO SEPARATE A LIQUID MOLECULE FROM ITS NEAREST NEIGHBORS.
MOLECULAR WEIGHT AND CHAIN LENGTH TRENDS IN BOILING POINTS
A series of alkanes demonstrates the general principle that boiling points increase as molecular weight or chain length increases (table 1.).
Table 1. BOILING POINTS OF ALKANES
Formula Name Boiling Point C Normal State at Room Temp. +20 C
CH4 Methane -161 gas
CH3CH3 Ethane - 89
CH3CH2CH3 Propane - 42
CH3CH2CH2CH3 Butane -0.5
CH3CH2CH2CH2CH3 Pentane + 36 liquid
CH3(CH2)6CH3 Octane +125
QUES. State whether the compounds above will be a gas or liquid state at room temperature (20 C). Hint: If the boiling point is below 20 C, then the liquid has already boiled andthe compound is a gas.
The reason that longer chain molecules have higher boiling points is that longer chain molecules become wrapped around and enmeshed in each other much like the strands of spaghetti.
How to Cite this Page
"Distillation of Crude Oil." 123HelpMe.com. 05 Dec 2019
Need Writing Help?
Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.Check your paper »
- ... They can be reused much more efficiency, which gives them a much more clear advantage. Biodegradable plastics are made from biomass, which is very renewable resource. Biomass includes grass, trees and all organic material that decomposes. This probably includes animal fat, meat and some tissues. Biodegradable plastics take much less time to break down after being used, if they haven’t been recycled, of course. this means that it will get absorbed into the earth and there will no longer be plastics dominating landscapes.... [tags: chemico-technical products, manufacture]
1590 words (4.5 pages)
- – Preliminary Assessment 1 Part a Identify a mixture from one of the spheres of the Earth- Lithosphere – Petroleum/Crude oil Crude oil is a naturally occurring fossil fuel that has been used for many thousands of years. It is a flammable liquid found in most cases underground. Crude oil’s components are primarily hydrocarbons that have many variations; traces of other elements are also found in crude oil and also in some cases natural gas. The term ‘crude oil’ refers to oil that is unprocessed.... [tags: natural gas, fossil fuel]
1205 words (3.4 pages)
- ... If we did not have these components separately we will be able to do the simplest things in our daily life. For example, gasoline and diesel are used to fuel engines in automobiles and higher vehicles. Purifying mixture For example if a mixture is of oil and dirt we could distill the mixture which leaves the dirt separately. For example, if we have dirt in oil that we got from distillation of crude oil from its component we can purify it and make uses of the oil. Desalinizing water In the gulf countries, industries distill ocean water into portable water because of the absence of lakes and natural resource of clean water.... [tags: uses in different industries]
1942 words (5.5 pages)
- Crude Oil Crude oil is a complex mixture of hydrocarbon molecules formed over millions of years when the remains of microscopic sea creatures trapped in sediments were converted by heat and pressure into crude oil. The most abundant of these mixtures are the ones containing hydrogen and carbon only. These hydrocarbons can take on a number of different forms, i.e. alkanes, alkenes and alkynes. They vary in size and shape and viscosity. By manipulating these chains of hydrocarbons you can create any number of useful substances as they are very adaptable.... [tags: Papers]
799 words (2.3 pages)
- How is this method used to help produce chemico-technical products (fuels,solvents, etc). The fractional distillation is when the crude oil get separated to a different parts, called fractions. The fractionating column is used to separate the crude oil, at the beginning the crude oil is heated at the bottom, that makes the hydrocarbon molecules to act very fast and separates from each other. Because the fractionating column have different boiling points, the consist in the crude oil allows to be separated using fractional distillation.... [tags: biodegradable plastic,PVC,fractional distillation]
1567 words (4.5 pages)
- 1. Introduction Automation has played a very important role in production industries, especially in the Oil, Gas and Petrochemicals industries. The world economy has been developing with oil as its lifeblood for over a hundred years now. It has been observed that whenever the oil prices increase, the prices of various products also increase. The Oil Industry also through oil production accounts for a large amount of the consumption of energy (as seen in Figure 1). Figure 1 Global energy producers by fuel type  The World Oil Demand has also been increasing consistently (as seen in Figure 2).... [tags: Petroleum, Oil refinery, Automation, Oil well]
921 words (2.6 pages)
- distillation tower. The process reduces the pour point of waxy residues and also reduce the viscosity of residues used for blending with lighter fuel oils. The thermally cracked residue tar is then vacuum flashed in a stripper and the distillate recycled (Eoearth, 2015). • Coking: this thermal cracking is a severe one used to upgrade heavy residuals into lighter products or distillates. The products of this process include straight-run gasoline (coker naphtha) and various middle-distillate fractions used as feedstock in catalytic cracking.... [tags: Petroleum, Oil refinery, Gasoline, Naphtha]
1073 words (3.1 pages)
- ... Mixed base – Mixed base is simply a form of crude oil which contains roughly equal amounts of paraffin and Asphalt, none being significantly greater than the other. The products in a mixed base crude oil are separated by fractional distillation WHERE DOES IT COME FROM. Formation of Oil Scientists have several theories on how oil and gas was formed but none of the theories have been effectively proven. Many scientists are of the opinion that the oil and gas deposits were formed from the decay of plant and animal remain.... [tags: crude oil, hydrocarbons industry]
1677 words (4.8 pages)
- Organic compounds are naturally permeated with impurities that can possibly pose problems in organic synthesis reactions. Therefore, an important part of organic chemistry lab is in the purification of substances. Unit three was a technique experiment in distillation, and its purpose was in the introduction of two types of distillation methods, although there are various other types. The main purpose of the lab was learning how to distinguish the appropriate time to use either of the distillation methods and learning how to interpret the analysis tools employed to determine the purity of a distillate.... [tags: Distillation, Fractional distillation]
935 words (2.7 pages)
- Extraction and Separation of Crude Oil Introduction: In this investigation I will use the multimedia science school programme and the chemistry books to see the formation, extraction and separation of the crude oil. Formation of crude oil: F81: Reservoir conditions vary with depthF82: Reservoir drive [IMAGE] [IMAGE] [IMAGE] As the materials were washed into the sea, land was formed. The living material dies then the sand, mud and other materials settle on the top of the seabed covering the dead living material.... [tags: Papers]
3192 words (9.1 pages)
FOCUS ON FOSSIL FUELS
Crude oil is a complicated mixture of hydrocarbons, with a varying composition depending on its source. The hydrocarbons in crude oil have different boiling points, according to the number of carbon atoms their molecules contain and how they are arranged. Fractional distillation uses the difference in boiling point to separate the hydrocarbons in crude oil. The fractionating column is cooler at the top than the bottom, so the vapours cool as they rise.
Vapours condense onto a tray when they reach the part of the column which is cooler than their boiling point. The bubble caps (figure 17) help to slow down the vapours has they rise through the column. As the last gases from the bottom of the column pass through the holes in a tray, any lighter hydrocarbons still in the condensed liquid are boiled off, and rise through the column.