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Picture Captions Project
Page 1: This picture shows daily life inside the home of Cornelius Rufus in Pompeii. It has people performing various activities and the pillars are painted red to hide fingerprints.
Page3: All official business was conducted in the Roman Forum. After a roman patronus received his clients, he would go to the Forum for business.
Page 5: This picture of the atrium at the House of the Faun at Pompeii had a funnel-shaped roof designed so that rainwater would drain into the impluvium. You can see the peristylum in the background, which had a garden and a fountain.
Page 8: Servants and children gather around the well to exchange news and get fresh water. The pillars are also painted red in this picture.
Page 11: The family unit was important in ancient Rome. If a family didn’t have a son, they would adopt a son to carry on the family name. Many famous Romans, such as Augustus Caesar were adopted.
Page 16: Children were taught to read at an early age. Roman books were papyrus rolled into scrolls.
Page 18: The Vestal Virgins had enormous prestige. They were chosen by patricians and introduced at the ages of six and ten. They served for 30 years. In the picture, they Virgins tended their sacred fire, which cannot go out.
Page 20: Livia Prusilla was the second wife of Augustus and the mother of Tiberius, Augustus’ successor. During her husband’s reign, she became her counselor and gracefully ran his domestic life.
Page 21: Women were responsible for the early education of their children and also got together to plan parties and celebrations. This picture is of the women’s domestic activities.
Page 23: Augustus was the first emperor of the Julio-Claudian line. He well understood the importance of propaganda. So, he encouraged the leading writers and poets to glorify Rome’s and Augustus’ achievements in their works.
Page 24: Virgil was one of Rome’s finest poets. He wrote the Ecogues, the Georgies, and the famous Aeneid.
Page 27: This is a picture of Tablets containing the Laws of the Twelve Tables. They were put together in the 5th century B.C. The laws include many rules and procedures on various topics.
Page 30: The Roman Forum was the area where business and political speeches were made. Because of this, they put the Twelve Tables here for everyone to see as a reference. With this, plebeians were guaranteed fairness.
Page 33: The Roman Senate was very powerful.
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Page 35: On the Pantheon, the inscription says, “M.AGRIPPA.C.P.COS.TERIUM.FECIT.” Which means “ Marcus Agrippa, son of Lucius, having been consul three times built it.” The Pantheon was probably a temple for all the gods before it was a church.
Page 39: Sometimes, Roman festivals had parades. They marched to the temple of a particular god or goddess. The New Year, Saturnalia, and the Lupernalia were joyous celebrations for all.
Page 42: There was a beautiful garden behind the House of the Vestal Virgins in the Roman Forum. The Vestals were to tend the garden. The background has remains of the Temple of Venus and Rome.
Page 45: One law said that cemeteries had to be built outside the city limits. They were place along the main highways near the city. The picture is of a family tomb on the Via Appia.
Page 57: The Greeks built the famous Parthenon on the Acropolis. The Propylaea is to the left in this picture.
Page 59: The whole family is eating together in this picture. When they are done, servants will clean up and serve the next course.
Page 61: Reclining at the dinner table, which is a custom in the city is not always followed in the countryside. This is shown in this picture from Germany.
Page 65: The tomb of Caecilia Metella can be seen along the Appian Way. The Metellus family produced many generals, as well as the wife of Crassus.
Page 67: Roman biremes were fairly common in ancient Rome. The rowers were protected. The smaller boats worked well for coastal trips.
Page 70: This is a picture of a Roman family preparing their meal. Daily tasks included shopping, cooking, serving, and cleaning up.
Page 71: This is a picture of an elaborate traveling carriage. The horses are harnessed four abreast. This is a stylish carriage.
Page 74: The Appian Way began in Rome and ended in Capua. It was extended to Brundisium. A column marks the end of the road.
Page 75: Mosaics were used to decorate homes and offices. The picture of the mosaic is from a Roman overseas shipping and trading company.
Page 76: Aesculapius was the god of medicine. He was the sun of Apollo and Coronis. He was taught the art of healing by Chiron. He is treating a patient in this picture.
Page 79: The Agora of Athens has been partially excavated. It was a large public space. The Painted Stoa was decorated with paintings by Polygnotus and Micon.
Page 81: Caryatid is a term for an architectural support that is wholly or partly human form. The Porch of Maidens was a great inspiration to the Romans, who made best use of this style at Hadrian’s Villa at Tivoli.
Page 83: A visit to the bath was a daily ritual for Romans. The baths at Bath, England were built around a natural spring. It is still one of Britain’s spas.
Page 85: Ovid was born in 43 b.c. He was drawn to literary circles in Rome and made himself a major player in the poetry scene. By time he was 30, he was Rome’s leading poet.
Page 87: Young men used to gather around their favorite orator or philosopher to learn rhetoric. The picture is of students gathered around Plato.
Page 92: This picture is of the entrance of the Acropolis at Athens and the Temple of Athena Nike.
Page 95: The Olympeium in Athens is one of the largest Greek Temples. It was built by Hadrian and has huge Corinthian columns.
Page 99: Ancient Roman coins sometimes showed buildings or statues built by the emperor. The coins shown portray important events in Caesar’s life.
Page 101: Weddings were a special day in Ancient Rome. Various traditions, such as the groom carrying his bride over the threshold, are still used today.
Page 102: In this picture, you can see the priest officiating at a wedding ceremony. Also, the bride and groom have joined hands.
Page 127: After Sulla won a battle, he returned to Rome and, with the support of aristocrats, took over the government and became dictator. Following that, there were many massacres and he retired after being consul for a year.
Page 145: In the picture, you can see the contest between the Horatii and the Curiatii, which decided the outcome of the Roman and Alban war.
Page 149: The story of Romulus’ founding was spread throughout Rome. The picture is of a famous reproduction in Spain. Romulus was the first king of Rome.
Page 153: The picture is of Lucretia and Tarquin, who was the last king of Rome. The senate expelled him after his son raped the virtuous Lucretia. This led to the establishment of the Roman Republic.
Page 155: The Tarquins built a great system of sewers and drains called the Cloaca Maxima. It was built to drain Rome’s marshlands and is still in use to this day.
Page 157: Tarquin’s sons went to the oracle at Delphi to learn about the snake omen. The oracle gave ambiguous answers so that her prophecy would always be true.
Page 164: The dominant branch of government was the Senate. It had 300, then 600, then 900, then 600 members who were primarily large landowners who couldn’t engage in large-scale business.
Page 172: The Capitoline Hill was the center of state religion and wasn’t well populated. It basically was a fortified citadel and sanctuary. In legend, the sacred geese of Juno alerted the Romans f a sneak attack by the Gauls.
Page 173: Michelangelo designed a square with a statue, which now occupies the summit of the Capitoline Hill. The statue is of Marcus Aurelius, but was preserved for so long because it was thought to be Constantine.
Page 191: Augustus made his government in 27 B.C., rebuilt Rome, reformed the Senate, made taxation fairer, made the census, and patronized the arts. He ruled the empire at its height and Started the 200 year long Pax Romana. He died in 14 AD and was buried in a tomb in Rome.