Essay PreviewMore ↓
James Mercer Langston Hughes, an African American, became a well known poet, novelist, journalist, and playwright. During the Harlem Renaissance, Langston Hughes gained fame and respect for his ability to express the Black American experiences in his works. He was one of the most original and versatile of the twentieth century black writers. Influenced by Paul Laurence Dunbar, Carl Dandburg, and his grandmother Carrie Mercer Langston Hughes, Langston Hughes began writing creatively while he was still a young boy (Barksdale 14).
Born in Joplin Missouri, Langston Hughes lived with both his parents until they separated. Because his father immigrated to Mexico and his mother was often away, Hughes was brought up in Lawrence, Kansas, by his grandmother Mary Langston. His grandmother embedded Hughes? sense of dedication. Her second husband (Hughes's grandfather) was a fierce abolitionist. She helped Hughes to see the cause of social justice. Although she told him wonderful stories about Frederick Douglas and Sojourner Truth and took him to hear Booker T. Washington, Hughes did not get all the attention he needed. Furthermore, Hughes felt hurt by both his parents and was unable to understand why he was not allowed to live with either of them. These feelings of rejection caused him to grow up very insecure and unsure of himself. Because his childhood was a lonely time, he fought the loneliness by reading different books.
?Books began to happen to me, and I began to believe in nothing but books
and the wonderful world in books where if people suffered, they suffered
in beautiful language, not in monosyllables, as we did in Kansas? (Hughes 16).
Langston Hughes began writing in high school, and even at this early age was developing the voice that made him famous. High school teacher and classmates recognized Hughes writing talent, and Hughes had his first pieces of verse published in the Central High Monthly, a sophisticated school magazine. An English teacher introduced him to poets such as Carl Sandburg and Walt Whitman, and these became Hughes?s earliest influences.
In 1921 he entered Columbia University, but left after an unhappy year. Langston was very fascinated and influenced by Harlem?s people and the life itself, there. The Big Sea, the first volume of his autobiography, provided ?such a crucial first person account of the era? that much of what we know about the Harlem Renaissance we know from Hughes?
How to Cite this Page
"Life and Work of Langston Hughes." 123HelpMe.com. 18 Jul 2019
Need Writing Help?
Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.Check your paper »
- Life and Work of Langston Hughes Early Years James Mercer Langston Hughes was born in Joplin, Missouri, on February 1, 1902, to James Nathaniel Hughes, a lawyer and businessman, and Carrie Mercer (Langston) Hughes, a teacher. The couple separated shortly thereafter. James Hughes was, by his son’s account, a cold man who hated blacks (and hated himself for being one), feeling that most of them deserved their ill fortune because of what he considered their ignorance and laziness. Langston’s youthful visits to him there, although sometimes for extended periods, were strained and painful.... [tags: Hughes Writer Poet Biography Essays Papers]
1965 words (5.6 pages)
- Langston Hughes uses beautiful symbolism and imagery in his literary work “On the Road”. Hughes offers up the idea that if one is to open ones heart; life will provide unlimited abundance. In this literary work, Langston Hughes uses nature to demonstrate and symbolize the unwillingness of his main character, Sargeant, to participate in life. Hughes also demonstrates the use of a person’s anger and instinct to survive and how they both can be used as powerful forces in breaking down racial barriers.... [tags: Road Langston Hughes]
1412 words (4 pages)
- During a time in American History were African Americans had no rights of freedom of speech or even a right to vote. Growing up in many different cities and living with many relatives, Langston Hughes experienced poverty. Langston Hughes used poetry to speak to the people. Langston Hughes is a pioneer of African American literature and the Harlem renaissance error. Mr. Hughes dedicated his poems to the struggles, pride, dreams, and racial injustices of African American people. Langston Hughes was born James Langston Hughes, February 1, 1902 in Joplin, Missouri.... [tags: poetry, Langston Hughes, racism,]
777 words (2.2 pages)
- Langston Hughes was a prominent artist of the Harlem Renaissance and one of the primary contributors during that time. His poetry empowered African Americans through their fight for racial equality. His prominence led to him being offered teaching positions at a number of colleges, but he rarely accepted. However, he did accept a position for three months in 1949 at the integrated Laboratory School of the University of Chicago as a Visiting Lecturer on Poetry. He concluded that teaching did not allow for adequate amount of time for creative writing.... [tags: Langston Hughes, African American]
1325 words (3.8 pages)
- The poet, Langston Hughes, was an iconic contributor to the Harlem Renaissance and an avid promoter of racial equality in America. His works were politically fueled and contained powerful messages that related to the everyday struggle and hardship faced by the African American population. Hughes spoke often of his dream of an equal America, and although his dream was not completely fulfilled in his lifetime, he remained faithful to the, then idealistic, view of an equal America. When analyzing politically fueled persons throughout history, we must first establish their motives and how their views were formed in relation to the time period as author, Anthony Dawahare, stated that, “To better... [tags: Harlem Renaissance, Langston Hughes]
1381 words (3.9 pages)
- Langston Hughes is a well known African American artists. He was born on February 1, 1902, in Joplin Missouri. Hughes was a poet, playwright, lyricist, and journalist. His works include poems, novels, plays, and short stories. He also was one of the important figures during the Harlem Renaissance. Hughes was a democrat and anti-fascist. Many of his works reflect his political values. His ideas portray freedom, social change, and equality for African Americans. There are two famous poems by Hughes that show that he specifically wanted African Americans to hold on to their dreams.... [tags: Langston Hughes, African American]
1846 words (5.3 pages)
- Langston Hughes Research Paper Langston Hughes was an African American poet who emerged during the Harlem Renaissance. The Harlem Renaissance strongly influenced most of Langston Hughes’s writing. In such works as “Dream”, “Still Here”, “Dream Deferred”, and “Justice” you see the clear messages that are trying to be voiced through his work. To understand why someone writes the way they do, we must understand where they come from. Hughes was born in Joplin, Missouri, in nineteen-oh-two. He grew up with his grandmother due to his parents being separated.... [tags: Langston Hughes, African American]
1458 words (4.2 pages)
- The Work of Langston Hughes Langston Hughes is considered by many readers to be the most significant black poet of the twentieth century. He is described as ³...the beloved author of poems steeped in the richness of African American culture, poems that exude Hughes¹s affection for black Americans across all divisions of region, class, and gender.² (Rampersad 3) His writing was both depressing and uplifting at times. His poetry, spanning five decades from 1926 to 1967, reflected the changing black experience in America, from the Harlem Renaissance to the turbulent sixties.... [tags: Poetry Langston Hughes Author Essays]
1319 words (3.8 pages)
- Langston Hughes's stories deal with and serve as a commentary of conditions befalling African Americans during the Depression Era. As Ostrom explains, "To a great degree, his stories speak for those who are disenfranchised, cheated, abused, or ignored because of race or class." (51) Hughes's stories speak of the downtrodden African-Americans neglected and overlooked by a prejudiced society. The recurring theme of powerlessness leads to violence is exemplified by the actions of Sargeant in "On the Road", old man Oyster in "Gumption", and the robber in "Why, You Reckon?" Hughes's "On the Road" explores what happens when a powerless individual takes action on behalf of his conditions.... [tags: Poetry Poem Langston Hughes]
842 words (2.4 pages)
- Salvation by Langston Hughes 'Salvation', by Langston Hughes is part of an autobiographical work written in 1940. The author narrates a story centering on a revival gathering that happened in his childhood. During the days leading up to the event, Hughes' aunt tells him repeatedly that he will be 'saved', stressing that he will see a light and Jesus will come into his life. He attends the meeting but when Jesus fails to appear, he is forced by peer pressure to lie and go up and be 'saved'. Hughes uses his story to illustrate how easy it is for children to misinterpret adults and subsequently become disillusioned.... [tags: Salvation Langston Hughes Essays]
721 words (2.1 pages)
?The fittest compliment I can pay this latest work by Langston Hughes is to
say that it is, on the whole, about as fine a collection of piffling trash as is to
be found under the covers of any book. If The Weary Blues made readers of
a loftier turn of mind weary, this will make them positively sick.? (Mullen
Although Fine Clothes to the Jew was not well received at the time of its publication because it was too experimental many other critics believed the volume to be among Hughes?s finest work. DuBose Heyward, who wrote for New York Herald Tribune Books, stated that: ?In Fine Clothes to the Jew we are given a volume more even in quality . . .? (Mullen 47). Even as he worked as a deliveryman, a messmate on ships to Africa and Europe, a busboy, and a dishwasher his poetry appeared regularly in such magazines as The Crisis (NAACP) and Opportunity (National Urban League). As a poet, Hughes was the first person to combine the traditional poetry with black artistic forms, especially blues and jazz. As a leader in the Harlem Renaissance of the twenties and thirties Hughes became the movements best-known poet. He published two poetry collections, The Weary Blues (1926) and Fine Clothes to the Jew (1927). Mainly because of the depression Hughes became a socialist in the 1930s. He never joined the Communist party, but he wrote many radical poems and essays in magazines like New Masses and International Literature and spent a year in the Soviet Union (Barksdale 250).
In 1939 Hughes moved away from the political scene. During the war he supported the Allies with patriotic songs and sketches and published a collection of poems Shakespeare in Harlem (1942). He attacked segregation, especially in his column in the black weekly Chicago Defender, where he created a comic but keen black urban every day man, Jesse B. Simple. In 1947, as a lyricist with Kurt Weill and Elmer Rice on the Broadway opera Street Scene, Hughes received great success. Hughes still feared for the future of urban blacks. His point of view became immense and included another book of poetry, almost a dozen children's books, several opera libretti, four books translated from French and Spanish, two collections of stories, another novel, the history of the NAACP and another volume of autobiography, I Wonder As I Wander. He also continued his work in the theater, pioneering in gospel musical plays.
Blues began in the south and slowly made its way into the great cities of the North. As
the great migration began people took what they knew in south to the north. This included music. Langston Hughes living in Harlem was caught up in the new rhythm of music and based many of his poems on it. As a boy he remembers hearing the blues performed in Kansas City. ?Hughes was fascinated with black music, he tried his hand at writing lyrics, and was taken with the possibilities of performing music and poetry together? ?Besides having both a love of this music and the black people it was created by, one of the reasons that Hughes began to draw on to the blues tradition for writing his poetry is that he hoped to capitalize on the blues craze.?(Barksdale 46) Though the markets for music and poetry were quite different, he thought he could somehow merge the two. Langston Hughes employed the structures, rhythms, themes and words of the blues that he heard in the country, the city, the field, the alley and the stage. When he used the musical and stanza structures of the blues to write his poetry he most often relied on the twelve-bar blues structure. That is often called blues in the classic form and about half of his blues poems fit this structure. Langston said,? I tried to write poems like the songs they sang on Seventh Street?. ?Hughes was a major figure in the Harlem Renaissance. He borrowed extensively from blues and Jazz in his work, and in doing so, set the foundations for a new tradition of Black literacy influences from Black music.?
For example, in The Weary Blues:
?By the pale dull pallor of an old gas light
He did a lazy sway
he did a lazy sway
To the tune of those weary blues?(Hughes 86)
In this beautiful poem, Hughes delineates a distance between the narrator of a poem and the blues man playing as if to make known to the world the distance between the poet and ?his people?. Not having been born in the South or having relations who were slaves, Hughes often considered himself an outsider when writing about slave experiences. He was a poet who was not exactly rooted in the experience?. Poems like ?The Weary Blues are most successful because they transcend the absence of actual music by capturing the spirit of the blues song in its cadence of lines, and extend the limits of oral tradition by changing or modifying the existing structures or themes of the blues. The range of Langston Hughes?s knowledge of the blues tradition and his attempts to utilize aspects of the oral blues tradition in his work demonstrate his creative genius in recognizing the blues as a truly great folk art itself (Emanuel 78).
The poem as I grew older is concerned with growing up. It explains how as a child a
person may have many dreams. But as they get older certain things get in the way of those dreams. In this poem it is the color of the dreamer?s skin that interferes and casts a shadow on his dream. The poem also depends on interplay between brightness and darkness. This is used to symbolize the subjects that interfere between a dream the speaker has. For instance when he implies about the wall. This wall is like the problems that come between someone and their dreams. As the speaker begins to break through the wall he is cast upon with rays of light. So the poem is implying that you should not let anything get in the way of your dreams (Jemie 34). One of Hughes most famous and one of his first poems is ?The Negro Speaks of Rivers?. The poem is a virtual thirteen lines of the history of African people. The rhythmic chant of the line, "I've known rivers", serves to emphasize the worldly experience Hughes felt was embodied in the soul of every African-American. Lines five through eight are a miniature primer on the
high points of African history, "I bathed in the Euphrates . . . I built my hut near the Congo . . . I looked upon the Nile and raised the pyramids . . ." (Hughes 10). The three-line gap following these lines is Hughes' representation of the void left in the history of his people by the spectrum of slavery. The Poem ?Harlem Night Club? tells the story of how when together in the in Harlem blacks and whites get along. They dance together and sing together but as tomorrow comes no one knows what paths they will go. It is as if the night acts as a disguise. It hides the color of the skin. And when tomorrow comes with the bright sun revealing the true person they shy away from each other because their identity has been revealed (Hughes 67).
Both Blacks and Whites have enjoyed Langston Hughes poetry for many years. Not only was he the first man to express the rhythm of blues in to words but he told the story of how it was to be a black person in his time. He used his Poetry in sense to speak out against racism. It was not easy growing up in a society where white domination was hardly of any support to the then growing black geniuses of literature like Langston Hughes. Though many obstacles came in his life, he was able to over come them without ever giving up. As a poet, he was truly an amazing writer finding ways to express the forbidden feelings of African Americans in his little poems and other literary works. Although his works were written in a simple language, they delivered a much greater meaning that was not seen on the surface of its innocence.
Arnold Rampersad. Hughes, Langston .Hughes Life and Career .
Oxford University Press. 1997
Barksdale, Richard. Langston Hughes: The Poet And His Critics. Chicago: American
Library Association. 1951
Emanuel, A. James. Langston Hughes. Boston: G. K. Hall & Co., 1967
Hughes, Langston. The Big Sea: An Autobiography. New York:
Thunder?s Mouth Press. 1940
Jemie, Onwuchekwa. Langston Hughes: An Introduction To The Poetry. New York:
Columbia University Press. 1976
Mullen, J. Edward. Critical Essays on Langston Hughes. Boston: G. K. Hall & Co.,
Jackson, Blyden. A History of Afro-American Literature. Volume 1.Baton Rouge and
London .Louisiana State University Press.1989