Essay PreviewMore ↓
2. FOCALE (Scarf) - A simple scarf or neckerchief worn around the neck to protect against scrapping and chafing of the armour and baldric. Usually a square or rectangular piece of linen or wool, colour varied.
3. LORICA (Armour) - Four main types were used by the Roman Army at this point, Lorica Hamata, Squamata, Segmentata, and the muscled cuirass. Legio XXX will primarily use the Segmetata. Constructed of steel plates linked together by internal leather straps, and brass hinges and buckles riveted to the steel. Provided excellent protection against slashing and piercing weapons, including most types of arrows. The Corbridge Type A that I made is pictured at right.
4. PILUM (Javelin) - Ranging in size from about 5' 1/2" to 7' in length. Comprised of a wooden hardwood shaft, with a forged iron head. These soft heads were designed to bend or brake on impact, preventing the enemy from throwing them back at the legions as they advanced.
5. BALTEUS (Military Belt) - The latter style of Balteus featured one thick belt, as opposed to earlier styles of wearing two thinner belts. It is possible that these pieces of kit were valuable personal items, and were bought according to the individual's tastes and budget. The pugio hangs off the belt on the left side for regular soldiers, on the right for centurions. The belt shown here is a Trajanic era balteus, thus the apron straps are shorter than earlier style belts. This is the type used by Legio XXX.
6. GLADIUS (Sword) - Developed from a Spanish short sword, the Gladius was the perfect weapon for fighting in close quarters. This weapon derived from the tactics of fighting in long, deep ranks with large shields (scuta). As the troops were side by side, and blocked by the large shields, there was little or no room for a long type of weapon, once the combatants closed, thus a short weapon designed for thrusting and slashing was developed.
How to Cite this Page
"Greek War Ar,pr amd Warfare Wear." 123HelpMe.com. 14 Nov 2019
Need Writing Help?
Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.Check your paper »
- The Medieval period was a time of noblemen who fought for love, honor, and country under a code of chivalry. "Chivalry comes from the French word cheval, chivalry means someone who fights from horseback. The term also meant "knighthood".(Matthews, Platt, Thomas p.234-235)." In this period the nobility used war as a way to show their power and hold their status by being professional soldiers. There were also lots of soldiers from the lower classes who were led into battle under nobles. These soldiers fought for the nobleman to maintain their safety and land.... [tags: Warfare ]
969 words (2.8 pages)
- In the midst of World War II, with Japanese victory seemingly far off and their unwilling to surrender, the Japanese resorted to a technique never before seen in war. Between October 1944 and August 1945, More than 3,000 Japanese Army and Navy pilots died intentionally by crashing their planes into allied ships. These warriors are often known as the kamikaze. Kamikaze is a Japanese word that translates into Divine Wind. The kamikaze warriors committed the ultimate act of sacrifice for their country and were glorified for doing so.... [tags: Warfare]
936 words (2.7 pages)
- This paper examines lessons learned that are timeless in their relevance for all types of warfare with respect to the lesson materials discussed in the Warfare Studies course. The first lesson learned that this paper examines is the United States’ adaptability in response to changing nature of warfare. The United States has experienced various types of warfare ranging from war of annihilation, war of attrition, or fourth-generation warfare; the United States has no identifiable American way of war.... [tags: Warfare ]
2214 words (6.3 pages)
- The images are haunting: soldiers in gas masks rapid firing through dusky vapours, people contorted with a pain that comes from within. Chemical warfare has long been acknowledged as a devastating tactical weapon, but the origin of this impression is now being debated. While it is a common held belief that chemical warfare is a form of modern warfare and that the First World War is recognised for introducing this type of combat, recent archaeological finds show this may prove otherwise. According to accepted definitions of chemical warfare, newly discovered battle tactics used by humanity’s ancestors may not be so different from those of modern warfare.... [tags: Warfare]
1330 words (3.8 pages)
- DIFFERENCE BETWEEN GREEK AND ROMAN WAREFARE The main difference between Greek and Roman warfare was the formations that they fought in. The Grecian armies all used the phalanx as a fighting formation while the Romans used the maniple. The phalanx was one mass formation that consisted of infantry eight deep. The maniple formation was actually a group of formations in a checkerboard pattern. Each maniple consisted of about 120 men and when employed in Italy, the Romans used thirty maniples. The maniple proved to be a better formation, because the phalanx left no room for maneuvering after engagement.... [tags: essays research papers]
410 words (1.2 pages)
- The United States (US) has been involved on the ongoing wars in Afghanistan, Iraq, and Syria for many years. After nearly a decade of war with an enemy that cannot be compared to any past adversary our military has been forced to evolve. In order to confront all of the issues that occur in a society that is repressive to women we have to evaluate rules that have governed our forces. One primary focus for the evaluation has been the role of women in a combat environment. In past wars and conflicts women were restricted from the “front lines”.... [tags: Unconventional Warfare]
1175 words (3.4 pages)
- Bacillus Anthracis and Biological Warfare Bacillus anthracis is a rod-shaped, nonmotile, aerobic, gram-positive bacterium that can be transmitted from herbivoric animals to humans (Figure 1). Before an animal’s death, its orifices exude blood containing huge quantities of the bacterium. Anthrax forms extremely resilient spores upon exposure to atmospheric conditions. Because of this spore-producing ability, even after the animal host dies the germs can sporulate again, persisting in the soil for up to several decades (1).... [tags: Germs Infections Warfare Essays]
3916 words (11.2 pages)
- An Analysis of Paul Laurence Dunbar's We Wear the Mask It has been said many time that "You can't judge a book by its cover" and "Don't judge a man until you have walked a mile in his shoes". A person may appear one way on the outside but may be feeling the total opposite on the inside. He may be masking his true emotions with a false appearance. In "We Wear the Mask" it seems that Paul Laurence Dunbar is conveying this message to his audience. The African-American slaves of the early United States are prime examples of how emotions can be repressed.... [tags: We Wear the Mask Essays]
503 words (1.4 pages)
- Analysis of We Wear the Mask by Paul Laurence Dunbar “We Wear the Mask” by Paul Laurence Dunbar is a renowned piece of literature that has been the subject of various literary criticisms over the years. Because of the poem’s indirectness and generalized ambiguity, the interpretation of the “we” that wears the “mask” and why they do so is left unanimously undisclosed. It is up to the interpreter and the support given by the interpreter to produce a valid representation of the meaning that lies beneath the mask.... [tags: Slavery Racism We Wear the Mask Essays]
1336 words (3.8 pages)
- Warfare in Beawulf Warfare is defined as military operations between enemies. The second definition is an activity undertaken by one country to weaken or destroy another (The Merriam Webster Dictionary). In Beowulf, warfare is extremely important for it is a way for a man to prove his strength and courage against others. War is also to protect others, and in Beowulf, the anonymous author seems to be rooting for, rather than against, warfare due to the many battles that Beowulf encounters. Beowulf begins with Grendel attacking the Danes out of vengeance and hatred.... [tags: Beauwulf Warfare Essays]
647 words (1.8 pages)
7. TUNIC (Shirt) - A simple rectangular knee length shirt made of 100% linen or wool. No surprises. Legio XXX colour schemes as follows: Red for all ranks including that of centurion, White for all those above. Unarmoured events, such as feasts, Legionaries may wear bleached white "dress" tunics.
8. SCUTUM(Shield) - Made of 3 overlapping layers of thin wood glued together and covered with linen and animal hide. The shields eventually evolved a brass rim, which at first was decorative, but then added to the shield's ability to defeat slashing attacks. The emblem varies from legion to legion, but generally features a red background, a mix of gold wings, lightning bolts, unicorn horns and tablets with legion names painted on them.
9. CALIGAE (Sandals) - These hobnailed sandals were essentially the Roman Army's boots! Made from several layers of leather nailed and sewn together, it is estimated that the average legionary went through 2 pairs a year. Dangerous on smooth surfaces though....nails aren't the best traction for modern floors!
PUGIO (Dagger) - Not shown in diagram. The pugio is thought to have been used as a back-up weapon in the case of a lost or broken sword. The blades were generally leaf shaped, and were about 7" - 11" long. The use of the Pugio seemed to cease in the 2nd century.
MANICA (Segmented Armguard) - Not shown in diagram. The Manica was
issued to during the Dacian Wars as an added protective measure against the Falx, a two handed sword capable of cleaving helmets and shields alike. This armour was worn on the sword arm of the legionary, protecting him while thrusting with the gladius.
OCCRA (Greaves) - As seen on Trajan's Column and also used by the Greeks, these steel shin protectors extended to just below the knee on a soldier's leg, whereas a Centurion's Greaves covered up to the knee.
1st Century versus 2nd Century....the Details
These items are specific to Legio XXX, but are also historically researched 2nd century Roman legionary items. Let's start from the top:
1. Cassis (Helm): During the Dacian Wars, Roman legionaries came in contact with the deadly Falx, a two handed scythe like sword, which was capable of cleaving through helmets. Thus crossbracing was introduced to re-enforce the helm. Acceptable types:
· Imperial Gallic Type "H"
· Imperial Itallic Type "G"
· Imperial Gallic Type "G" acceptable, though not recommended.
*Cross bracing is NOT an absolute requirement. I can understand forking over a large amount of money for a Gallic "H" and not wanting to put holes in it. Therefore, cross bracing on the Gallic "H" or "G" is totally optional.
2. Focale (Scarf): same as 1st Century.
3. Lorica Segmentata (Segmented Armour): The Newstead type and Corbridge types B and C are preferred, but the Corbridge type A is acceptable. Other types of lorica will be used only with specific roles within the unit, ie: Centurion, Tribune, Aquilifer etc.
4. Pilum (Javelin): same as 1st Century.
5. Balteus (Military Belt): The apron length was shorter in the later centuries. Approximately one half the length of a 1st century belt.
6. Gladius (Sword): The Gladius had evolved into it's final form by this time, in that of the Pompeii type. These were likely faster and easier to produce as the edges were parallel as opposed to "wasp" shaped like the earlier Mainz type.
· Pompeii Type - preferred
· Fulham Type - not preferred, but acceptable
· Mainz Type - acceptable, but not recommended.
· Gladius Hispaniensis - too old!
7. Tunic (Shirt): same as 1st Century. The colour scheme as stated above in the diagram description.
8. Scutum (Shield): Rectangular shape, not the earlier curve-sided type.
9. Caligae (Sandals): same as 1st century.
10. Pugio (Dagger): same as 1st century
11. Manica (Segmented Arm Guard): This was likely introduced at the same time as the crossbracing, in defense of the long reach of the Dacian Falx. The unprotected sword arm of the legionaries was well within striking range of this weapon, thus the manica was used to defeat this weapon.
12. Occra (Greaves): Another adaptation to the Falx, as it was able to reach under the scutum and injure the legionaries unprotected legs.
Well, that about sums up the major differences between 1st century and 2nd century kit. Again these are based on both archaeological finds and other historical evidence, and will be used as the standard for kit of Legio XXX.