Greek War Ar,pr amd Warfare Wear

Greek War Ar,pr amd Warfare Wear

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1. CASSIS (Helmet) - Depending on type and year, was made of bronze, brass or steel/iron. Many different styles, depending on when and where it was made, had styled features such as neck guards, edging, stamped bosses, etc. Since Legio XXX is a 2nd Century legion, earlier style helmets may not be practical. The latter models, such as the Imperial Itallic 'G' and the Gallic 'H' are preferred, especially those with crossbracing.
2. FOCALE (Scarf) - A simple scarf or neckerchief worn around the neck to protect against scrapping and chafing of the armour and baldric. Usually a square or rectangular piece of linen or wool, colour varied.
3. LORICA (Armour) - Four main types were used by the Roman Army at this point, Lorica Hamata, Squamata, Segmentata, and the muscled cuirass. Legio XXX will primarily use the Segmetata. Constructed of steel plates linked together by internal leather straps, and brass hinges and buckles riveted to the steel. Provided excellent protection against slashing and piercing weapons, including most types of arrows. The Corbridge Type A that I made is pictured at right.

4. PILUM (Javelin) - Ranging in size from about 5' 1/2" to 7' in length. Comprised of a wooden hardwood shaft, with a forged iron head. These soft heads were designed to bend or brake on impact, preventing the enemy from throwing them back at the legions as they advanced.
5. BALTEUS (Military Belt) - The latter style of Balteus featured one thick belt, as opposed to earlier styles of wearing two thinner belts. It is possible that these pieces of kit were valuable personal items, and were bought according to the individual's tastes and budget. The pugio hangs off the belt on the left side for regular soldiers, on the right for centurions. The belt shown here is a Trajanic era balteus, thus the apron straps are shorter than earlier style belts. This is the type used by Legio XXX.
6. GLADIUS (Sword) - Developed from a Spanish short sword, the Gladius was the perfect weapon for fighting in close quarters. This weapon derived from the tactics of fighting in long, deep ranks with large shields (scuta). As the troops were side by side, and blocked by the large shields, there was little or no room for a long type of weapon, once the combatants closed, thus a short weapon designed for thrusting and slashing was developed.

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The final evolution of the Gladius was the Pompeii type.

7. TUNIC (Shirt) - A simple rectangular knee length shirt made of 100% linen or wool. No surprises. Legio XXX colour schemes as follows: Red for all ranks including that of centurion, White for all those above. Unarmoured events, such as feasts, Legionaries may wear bleached white "dress" tunics.
8. SCUTUM(Shield) - Made of 3 overlapping layers of thin wood glued together and covered with linen and animal hide. The shields eventually evolved a brass rim, which at first was decorative, but then added to the shield's ability to defeat slashing attacks. The emblem varies from legion to legion, but generally features a red background, a mix of gold wings, lightning bolts, unicorn horns and tablets with legion names painted on them.

9. CALIGAE (Sandals) - These hobnailed sandals were essentially the Roman Army's boots! Made from several layers of leather nailed and sewn together, it is estimated that the average legionary went through 2 pairs a year. Dangerous on smooth surfaces though....nails aren't the best traction for modern floors!
PUGIO (Dagger) - Not shown in diagram. The pugio is thought to have been used as a back-up weapon in the case of a lost or broken sword. The blades were generally leaf shaped, and were about 7" - 11" long. The use of the Pugio seemed to cease in the 2nd century.

MANICA (Segmented Armguard) - Not shown in diagram. The Manica was
issued to during the Dacian Wars as an added protective measure against the Falx, a two handed sword capable of cleaving helmets and shields alike. This armour was worn on the sword arm of the legionary, protecting him while thrusting with the gladius.
OCCRA (Greaves) - As seen on Trajan's Column and also used by the Greeks, these steel shin protectors extended to just below the knee on a soldier's leg, whereas a Centurion's Greaves covered up to the knee.

1st Century versus 2nd Century....the Details
These items are specific to Legio XXX, but are also historically researched 2nd century Roman legionary items. Let's start from the top:
1. Cassis (Helm): During the Dacian Wars, Roman legionaries came in contact with the deadly Falx, a two handed scythe like sword, which was capable of cleaving through helmets. Thus crossbracing was introduced to re-enforce the helm. Acceptable types:
·     Imperial Gallic Type "H"
·     Imperial Itallic Type "G"
·     Imperial Gallic Type "G" acceptable, though not recommended.
*Cross bracing is NOT an absolute requirement. I can understand forking over a large amount of money for a Gallic "H" and not wanting to put holes in it. Therefore, cross bracing on the Gallic "H" or "G" is totally optional.
2. Focale (Scarf): same as 1st Century.
3. Lorica Segmentata (Segmented Armour): The Newstead type and Corbridge types B and C are preferred, but the Corbridge type A is acceptable. Other types of lorica will be used only with specific roles within the unit, ie: Centurion, Tribune, Aquilifer etc.
4. Pilum (Javelin): same as 1st Century.
5. Balteus (Military Belt): The apron length was shorter in the later centuries. Approximately one half the length of a 1st century belt.
6. Gladius (Sword): The Gladius had evolved into it's final form by this time, in that of the Pompeii type. These were likely faster and easier to produce as the edges were parallel as opposed to "wasp" shaped like the earlier Mainz type.
·     Pompeii Type - preferred
·     Fulham Type - not preferred, but acceptable
·     Mainz Type - acceptable, but not recommended.
·     Gladius Hispaniensis - too old!
7. Tunic (Shirt): same as 1st Century. The colour scheme as stated above in the diagram description.
8. Scutum (Shield): Rectangular shape, not the earlier curve-sided type.
9. Caligae (Sandals): same as 1st century.
10. Pugio (Dagger): same as 1st century
11. Manica (Segmented Arm Guard): This was likely introduced at the same time as the crossbracing, in defense of the long reach of the Dacian Falx. The unprotected sword arm of the legionaries was well within striking range of this weapon, thus the manica was used to defeat this weapon.
12. Occra (Greaves): Another adaptation to the Falx, as it was able to reach under the scutum and injure the legionaries unprotected legs.
Well, that about sums up the major differences between 1st century and 2nd century kit. Again these are based on both archaeological finds and other historical evidence, and will be used as the standard for kit of Legio XXX.
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