Human Genome Project

Human Genome Project

Length: 1025 words (2.9 double-spaced pages)

Rating: Excellent

Open Document

Essay Preview

More ↓

Human Genome Project

     Scientists are taking medical technology to new heights as they race to map all of the genes in our body. There are about 100,000, in the 23 chromosomes of the human body. In doing this they hope that they can understand the basis of the genes and maybe even develop methods of treating certain genetic diseases, such as Alzheimer’s and Muscular Dystrophy. The scientists identify the DNA sequence of someone with the disease and then compare it to a person without the disease. By doing this they can recognize which gene is abnormal and causes the disease. This entire process is called the “Human Genome Project” and is being done in more than 200 laboratories, with more and more labs joining each year. Most of these labs are located in France and the United States. The project started in 1990 and was predicted to take 15 years and cost $3 billion. It costs the United States about $200 million per year. The $200 million per year has only covered about 60% of the annual need. This has created some funding problems for the project. On the brighter side the project has made huge steps in gene mapping and continues to improve every year.

     Researchers have successfully located the gene and the DNA sequence that causes Huntington’s Disease. It is located on Chromosome 4. Scientists have created a genetic test, which can determine whether someone carries these genes or DNA pattern. Every child of someone with Huntington’s Disease has a 50% chance of inheriting the gene, which then inevitably leads to the disease. Because of the high amounts of money it costs for treatment of this disease insurance companies see this test as an opportunity to screen potential clients for the probability of such diseases. This would allow them to deny certain people insurance if they are at high risk. This puts the people being screen in a position where they might not be able to receive treatment for their illnesses because they won’t be able to get insurance. This is morally wrong and also violates the patients right to privacy. This information must be safeguarded from insurance companies so they will not be able to discriminate against someone with “bad genes”. These actions also bring up several ethical questions. “Does genetic testing constitute an invasion of privacy, and would it cause discrimination against those born with genetic deficiencies?

How to Cite this Page

MLA Citation:
"Human Genome Project." 16 Sep 2019

Need Writing Help?

Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.

Check your paper »

The Human Genome Project ( Hgp ) Essay

- The Human Genome Project (HGP) is a Multinational, collaborative research program whose goal was to complete mapping and understanding of all the genes present in the human being. The commencement of Human Genome Project began in 1988, with the support of the National Institute of Health (NIH) and Department of Energy (DOE). The Initial phase of the Human Genome Project (1990’s) relied on the findings and techniques such as Site-specific Restriction enzymes, positional cloning, Polymerase chain reaction, Fluorescence In-Situ Hybridization (FISH ) and STS ( sequence Tagged site )determination, used in early 1970-1980’s, to study and sequence genes....   [tags: DNA, Genetics, Human Genome Project, Human genome]

Research Papers
1091 words (3.1 pages)

The Human Genome Project Is An International Scientific Research Project

- The Human Genome Project is an international scientific research project that had one goal: to complete mapping and understanding of all the genes of human beings. A genome is a collection of all your genes and DNA. Every human cell has about 4 thousand genes. The Human Genome Project has many advantages and disadvantages to society. It can help us advance in medicine by early detection of genetic diseases and agriculture by creating more disease resistant animals and plants. However it can also be detrimental, for instance, it may give parents a chance to pick and choose characters their children will inherit....   [tags: Genetics, DNA, Human Genome Project, Human genome]

Research Papers
911 words (2.6 pages)

Uses of the Human Genome Research Project Essay

- So what is a human genome and why is the government researching it. The Human genome is the sequence of roughly 20,000 genes that make up human Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), or the building blocks that tell cells what to do. The government project named Human Genome Project (HGP) started in 1990’s, and is trying to unravel the 3 billion chemical base pairs in a DNA strand ( DNA is made up of phosphates, sugars and amino acids, Adenine (A), Thymine (T), Cytosine(C) and Guanine (G)....   [tags: Human Genome Project]

Research Papers
1702 words (4.9 pages)

The Human Genome Project Essay

- Introduction The purpose of the human genome project was to select the best pairs of the genes and the desirable characteristics in the human beings to maintain the production of the organisms according to the desirable gene sequencing. This project was initiated to control the sequencing of the gene artificially [1]. The world’s largest biological plan was the human genome project as it was started on the large scale. The idea of this project was given by the researchers in 1984. The practical work started in 1990 to execute the project....   [tags: Genetics, DNA, Gene, Human Genome Project]

Research Papers
1491 words (4.3 pages)

The Human Genome Project : A Narrative Of The Journey Of Our Species Through Time

- Director of the National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI), Francis Collins expressed that the genome could be thought of as a multipurpose book. "It 's a history book - a narrative of the journey of our species through time. It 's a shop manual, with an incredibly detailed blueprint for building every human cell. And it 's a transformative textbook of medicine, with insights that will give health care providers immense new powers to treat, prevent and cure disease." This analogy is very popular in describing how intricate and detailed the human genome is....   [tags: DNA, Genetics, Gene, Human Genome Project]

Research Papers
1166 words (3.3 pages)

The Human Genome Project Commenced Essay example

- The Human Genome Project commenced in 1990, with the goal of sequencing the entire human genome within 25 years. This was successfully completed in the early 2000s due to widespread research efforts and advancements in computing technology (4). With this knowledge, researchers shifted their focus to individual genes; particularly, the function of the proteins they coded for. “Gene knockout” is the general term used for synthetically inactivating a gene of interest. There are three basic approaches for gene-inactivation: [i] take a normal (wild type) gene and replace it with a nonfunctional sequence (which will be discussed below), [ii] express another allele that codes for an inhibitory prot...   [tags: DNA, Gene, Genetics, Genome]

Research Papers
919 words (2.6 pages)

The Human Genome Project : A Scientific Program Essay

- Many nations across the globe have collaborated to develop the Human Genome Project; a scientific program of which focuses on the development of our genetic blueprint. In 1990, the Human Genome Project officially began in the United States, with the Department of Energy (DOE), and the National Institutes of Health (NIH). The objective of the Human Genome Project is to provide an accurate template of the entire DNA sequence, including the three billion DNA (Deoxyrobosenucleic acid) base pairs that make up the complete Genome....   [tags: DNA, Gene, Genetics, Genome]

Research Papers
1320 words (3.8 pages)

Essay about Morality And The Human Genome Project

- Morality and the Human Genome Project      Does the Human Genome Project affect the moral standards of society. Can the information produced by it become a beneficial asset or a moral evil. For example, in a genetic race or class distinction the use of the X chromosome markers can be used for the identification of a persons ethnicity or class (Murphy,34). A seemingly harmless collection of information from the advancement of the Human Genome Project. But, lets assume this information is used to explore ways to deny entry into countries, determine social class, or even who gets preferential treatment....   [tags: Science Human Genome Ethics Essays]

Research Papers
1359 words (3.9 pages)

The Human Genome Project Essay

- The Human Genome Project Now more than ever it is not uncommon to hear of scientific barriers being crossed. This is seen through, "a scientific research effort . . . currently under way which is unlike anything ever before attempted. International in its scope, it is enormously expensive and, if successful, could lead to our ultimate control of human disease, aging, and death. It is nothing short of a revolution against the way science has traditionally progressed"1 . This statement of Thomas Lee refers to a massive scientific undertaking known as the human genome project, an endeavor that aims to discover each and every intricacy of human genetics....   [tags: Genome Science biology Essays]

Research Papers
2348 words (6.7 pages)

Essay The Implications of the Human Genome Project on Human Health

- The Implications of the Human Genome Project on Human Health The human genome project was scientific project to identify both the genes and the entire sequence of DNA base pairs that make up the human genome. An international scientific effort to map all of the genes on the 23 pairs of human chromosomes and, to sequence the 3.1 billion DNA base pairs that make up the chromosomes. But with the mapping of the human genome there will be some ethical and social aspects that will be raised with the identification of the base pairs of the human genome....   [tags: Free Essays]

Free Essays
363 words (1 pages)

Related Searches

Would the parental testing lead people to have more abortions? There are many genetic advancements to come in the future. One area that will benefit from the Human Genome Project is genetic engineering. It too, may have many unethical aspects depending on how the information is used and what is created.

     Gene Therapy is one aspect that has greatly benefited from the gene mapping done in the Human Genome Project. It uses genetic engineering to treat genetic disorders. Gene mapping does this by introducing genes into existing cells to prevent or cure diseases. Most of the methods that have been developed are in experimental stages and have not been approved by the FDA. An example of gene therapy is the use of Herpes to treat a brain tumor. Scientists take a Herpes gene and splice it in to a nonvirulent virus.
Then the virus is placed in a lab animal to reproduce itself, and after reproduction, it is then injected into the human’s brain tumor. Because Viruses and liposomes have and uncanny ability to navigate through cell membranes it invades the tumor cells. Thus, the Herpes enzyme will make the tumor vulnerable to drugs used to cure herpes, killing the tumor, the virus and all the animal cells used to manufacture the virus.

     With these and many other ideas springing out from the medical world, many researchers are optimistic about the results of their research. There is also a direct correlation of the sequencing of genes and the production of drugs to treat certain diseases that have strands of defective genes, such as Alzheimer’s. If scientists could locate the genes that cause these type of diseases then drugs can be developed to effect the specific location of the gene. The director of the gene therapy program at the University of Southern California, Dr. W French Anderson states, “Twenty years from now, gene therapy will have revolutionized medicine. Virtually every disease will have it as one of its treatments.” Such an impact would take much longer with trial and error tactics, rather than methodically mapping out the blueprint for the body.

     This research is going to continue at a blazing speed. What people need to keep in mind is that the results of this research need to be use to benefit all of society, not just the people who are extremely wealthy. Also, the decision of being tested for certain genetic diseases should lie with that individual. Some people will not be able to handle the fact that they are destine to have a certain disease or genetic flaw.

     Some states have already enacted law guarding the rights of individuals being genetically tested. The problem with these laws is that they only cover certain procedures not all of the testing. One solution to stop genetic testing by insurance companies is to make them give everyone in the country the same rate. This way they could not discriminate against people and it would put everyone on a level playing field. Another solution is to keep the information completely confidential. In doing this everyone will get a chance to get the proper treatment for whatever disease that they will inherit. Once genetic testing is mastered and becomes available for everyone insurance companies will start requiring people to be tested before they are given coverage. The government needs to put the necessary laws in place to stop this from happening. Just because an insurance company does not want to lose money on people who have “bad genes” does not mean they should be banned from coverage. What society and the people involved in Genetic testing, genetic mapping, and genetic engineering must remember is that the information they discover should be used to help mankind, not to profit economically.

Return to