The Holocaust

The Holocaust

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The Holocaust

The Holocaust 1) Newsletter of the Blond Champion This
was a newsletter written by a very anti-Semitic writer named
Lanz. The newsletters were actually a series of pamphlets
written over the course of three years. Hitler frequently
bought the pamphlets, which described history as a constant
battle between blond Aryan heroes, and dark, hairy
ape-men. Lanz sometimes identified the ape-men as Jews,
and he predicted that pogroms would soon come. He
promoted the swastika as a sign of racial purity, and
eventually raised a swastika flag over his castle. He may
have been the main person who set an impression in Hitler’s
mind that Jews are inferior, and a threat to society. Due to
reading Lanz’s outlook on the Jews, Hitler concluded that
diseased, filthy Jews would steal and abuse innocent young
Aryan girls. 2) Protocols of the Elders of Zion This was a
book brought to Germany and to Hitler by a Russian émigré
named Alfred Rosenberg. It claimed to unveil the plans of a
secret international Jewish conspiracy to take over the
world. It was a pure piece of fiction, that was the new
backbone for anti-Semites. Many anti-Semitic people
commented on the Protocols. It was first brought to
Germany in 1920, and by the end of 1920, there were
already 120,000 copies sold! 3) Mein Kampf This is a book
written by Adolf Hitler while he was in prison during
1923-24. In it, he portrays himself, at age 35, as a great
intellectual and political figure. His single purpose was to
write about his personal greatnesses, and about his plans to
take over Germany so he can get rid of the Jews. He takes
much credit in Mein Kampf, he doesn’t mention the fact that
his parents, Lanz, and others influenced him a lot. He
describes all of his ideas about the “Final Solution” to get rid
of all the Jews in Germany, and then on to all the Jews in the
World. He also talks about the perfect race of Aryans,
blond, blue eyed, broad shouldered Germans, and about
promoting the spread of anti-Semites all over the world. 4)
Bolshevism This was a policy held by Bolsheviks, a party
that brought violent revolution to Russia in 1918. Hitler saw
that there were many Jews involved in Bolshevism, so he
used that to prove his point that Jews were out to rule the
world. 5) Nazism- Nazi This was a political party also
known as the Nationalist Socialist German Worker’s party.
It consisted of perfect German Aryans who had one goal in
life- to wipe out all existence of Jews. Their anti-Semitic
influential leader was Hitler. 6) Fichte Johann Gottlieb Fichte

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was a philosopher called the father of German nationalism,
and the father of modern German anti-Semites. He felt that
Jewish ideas were as bad as French ideas, and that it would
be dangerous to the Germans if Jews were allowed to
become German citizens. 7) Volk Two philosophers were
involved in this term, Ernst Moritz Arndt, and his student,
Friedrich Ludwig Jahn, gave the name “Volk” to German
nationalism. It means “people”, but signifies so much more. It
became more of a religious term, meaning a racially pure
people, i.e., without racially impure Jews. It described the
innermost character of what Germans were supposed to be.
Hitler had this tremendous animosity for gypsies, Jews, and
homosexuals just because he did not see them as part of the
German Volk. 8) Explain: Liberalism is UnGerman Since the
Germans hated the French, and Liberalism was a French
idea, Germany despised it. Also, Germany was a
dictatorship, and liked it that way. Liberalism was
pro-democracy, so obviously, by nature the Germans did
not approve op it. 9) Anti Semites Petition of 1880’s In the
fall of 1880, an anti-Semitic petition was circulated. It was
started by two schoolteachers, and a minor nobleman, and
was distributed by a newly formed anti-Semitic students’
club. A petition that asked the German government to “free”
Germany from Jews who were described as foreigners trying
to master and destroy the German people. The petition also
demanded that Jewish immigration became restricted. When
it was presented to Chancellor Bismarck in April 1881, the
petition had 225,000 signatures! 10) Leopald Zunz He was
a great Jewish reformer and historian of Judaism, who was
an optimist. As opposed to another Jewish reformer,
Berthold Auerbach, Zunz believed that this tremendous
animosity the Germans possess for the Jews was childish,
and will pass. The reality was actually far from Zunz’s
outlook. Germans DID hate the Jews with all their hearts
and all their souls, and will go to the farthest extent to display
their hatred. 11) Dühring Eugen Karl Dühring was one
leader of the reform unions. He was a philosopher and
economist who taught at the University of Berlin until 1877,
when university officials who found him, uncooperatively,
forced him to retire. Like practically all unfortunate
anti-Semites, Dühring blamed all his misfortunes on the Jews.
He wrote that Judaism was taking over Germany, and that
Jews were trying to destroy the state. His position as a
famous teacher made his ideas become engraved in many of
his student’s minds. His main idea was that the Jewish race
was a “counterrace” separated from all human races. In fact,
one of his students was influenced by Dühring’s ideas, that
he told his ideas to Hitler, who then adopted those ideas.
12) Nationalist Socialist German Workers Party This is
another name for the Nazi party, which consisted of
anti-Semitic people with the goal of wiping out every Jew
and Jewish idea in this world. They supported the Aryan, a
tall, blond, blue eyed, broad shouldered German. Their
abomination for the Jews was inconceivable! They were
especially against the Jews having citizenship in Germany.
13) Totalitarian State A Totalitarian state is another word for
a dictatorship. In this kind of a state, there is one ruler with
absolute power. The idea of a dictatorship was promoted by
the Germans, and opposed to by the French. Hitler was the
dictator in the German Totalitarian State. 14) Weimar
Republic The Weimar Republic was another name for
Germany after their defeat in World War 1 in 1919. It was
given a Democratic constitution. But then, Germany went
into a depression, and Hitler decided to blame all his
problems on the Jews. He claimed he needed to become
dictator to rid Germany of Jews. When he became dictator,
German citizenship was taken away from all Jews. Then, the
Weimar Republic was no longer democratic. 15)
Hindenburg Paul von Hindenburg was the last president of
the Weimar Republic. On January 30, 1933, Hindenburg
administered the oath of office to Adolf Hitler. His plans
were for Hitler to be PRESIDENT, but that wasn’t what
Hitler had in mind. Hitler wanted to be the DICTATOR of
Germany! 16) Public Safety Hitler was very cunning when it
came to rising to power. He used his slogan of getting rid of
Jews in order to become president. He then took steps
toward being a dictator, until he was a full fledged dictator.
The first anti-democratic step he took was on February 4,
1933, when he requested from Hindenburg the power to
prohibit public meetings and to stop publications in which
Hitler didn’t like. He used the excuse that certain meetings
and publications (Jewish meetings and publications) could
“endanger public safety”. Obviously all Hitler wanted was
more power to get rid of the Jews, but he used the excuse
that the Jews can endanger public safety. 17) Storm Troops
The Storm Troops were the Nazi’s secret army. It grew to
have over 400,000 members right after Hitler came to
power. Their objective, simple- to terrorize all whom Hitler
hated, i.e., Communist, Socialists, trade union workers, and
especially Jews. In ten days, the Storm Troops took over
15,000 prisoners into protective custody. 18) Gestapo The
Gestapo was the Secret State Police Office. The people
who were in charge of the Gestapo, along with all other
political German police services, were Reinhard Heydrich
and Heinrich Himmler. It’s headquarters were in Berlin. One
thing they did was investigate “enemies of the state”, which
included Jews. Also, on Kristallnacht, the Gestapo was
responsible for rounding up some 50,000 Polish Jews who
were living in Germany. 19) Eichman Adolf Eichman was the
person in charge of the Jewish affairs subsidiary of the SS.
Though he was a horrible person, and he killed MANY
people, he was not as bad as Hitler! Hitler believed that if
you have a trace of Jewish blood, then you are a Jew.
Eichman believed, that some Jews, including Zionists, are
OK Jews. Eichman actually applauded Zionism. 20) Göring
Hermann Göring was a German cabinet minister in charge of
the Storm Troops. He lived from 1893 to 1946. He was a
German Field Marshal, Commander in chief of the German
air force. He was the second most powerful leader in
Germany. 21) Lebensraum The literal meaning of this word
is living space. Hitler said that “War is life”, and his
philosophy made him want to go to war- but not to simply
conquer foreign territory or people. He wanted to go to war
to make for space for the racially supreme, i.e., Aryans. 22)
Kristallnacht or Night of the Broken Glass On the night of
November 9, 1938, the Nazis went out hunting down
“enemies of the state.” Fires were ignited throughout the
country, and the streets were littered with broken glass from
the windows of synagogues, Jewish stores, and homes. On
Kristallnacht, over 7,000 businesses were destroyed, nearly
100 Jews were murdered, and thousands more were cruelly
mistreated. 23) Reichstag The Reichstag building was a
government building which was set to fire on February 27,
1933. An insane communist was found on the scene, but
there was a very big rumor going around that Hitler’s party
may have set it on fire as a strategical move. They would be
able to blame the fire on the communists (which consisted on
many Jews), so the Nazi party would be elected under the
slogan that they would get rid of the Jews who set fire to the
Reichstag building. 24) Blitzreig The literal meaning is
lightning campaign. Hitler wanted to conquer Poland, but the
British and French governments said they would come to
Poland’s aid. So Hitler decided to run a Lightning campaign
throughout Poland, which was supposed to resist war. 25)
Maxim Litvinov He was the Russian Foreign Minister who
was sent to Germany to discuss a peace pact. He
represented everything the Nazis hated- He was a Jew,
peace advocate, supporter of the League of Nations, friend
of the Western democracies, and an opponent of the Nazis.
Hitler hated Maxim, yet he still made a “pact with the Satan
so as to drive out the Devil”. 26) Einsatzgrupen Another
name for Einsatzgrupen are the Special Duty Groups. Hitler
commanded them to kill as many Jews as they can in the
areas in which the German army had already defeated. 27)
Shift from immigration to evacuation Immigration was simply
relocating the Jews, but Hitler wanted more to be done
about the Jewish Question. Evacuation was to
EXTERMINATE all Jews, meaning to kill them. 28)
Heydrich The people who were in charge of the Gestapo,
along with all other political German police services, were
Reinhard Heydrich and Heinrich Himmler. It’s headquarters
were in Berlin. One thing they did was investigate “enemies
of the state”, which included Jews. 29) Final Solution The
Final Solution was to answer the Jewish Question. All Jews
were to be evacuated, no matter what. Some prominent
Jews would be given more time to evacuate. 30) Gemeinde
There were over 1,300 members in this communal religious
organization. It maintained synagogues, promoted religious
education, and dispensed charity. It made its money from
Jewish state taxes. The Gemeinde of each state belonged to
a central association. 31) Judenrat The Judenrat was an
organization first established to help the Germans relocate
the Jews into Poland. Over time, they were to carry out
every order of the Germans. They were fully responsible for
prompt and careful cooperation with all government decrees.
Instead of the Judenrat being used to relocate the Jews, they
were later used to fully exterminate them. 32) Central
Association of German Jews of the Jewish Religion This was
the first Jewish group before the war that fought
anti-Semitism. They were very optimistic, and told Jews that
German is home to the Jews, and that won’t change. 33)
Martin Buber Martin Buber lived from 1878 to 1965. He
was extremely persuasive in summoning his fellow Jews to
Jewish self-awareness. The scholar wrote books and gave
lectures that stirred German Jews to be true to Jewish values
in the totality of their lives. 34) Jewish Fraud In ghettos,
many Jews suffered, but not only because of the Nazis. The
Jews blamed their suffering on the Germans, and the
Judenrat, who not only carried out the Nazis orders without
hesitation or regret, but they also did more than what their
commanders told them to do. The Judenrat was given the
name Jewish Fraud by Jews, because of the way they were
treating the Jews. 35) Bund The Bund is also known as the
socialist Jewish worker’s association. It was the strongest
political movement in the Ghetto, located in Warsaw. Even
when the Germans had siege of the city, it continued to hand
print a daily newspaper. It often sponsored and organized
public kitchens, a Socialist Red Cross to care for those who
were sick and on forced labor, and a youth movement. The
Bund also helped to fight off pogroms. 36) Bloody Friday
Bloody Friday was late night on Friday (obviously), April
17, 1942, in Warsaw. The Bund and other underground
press writers were caught, and warned by the Gestapo to
stop printing the underground newspapers, and on Bloody
Friday, some 50 of those Jews were shot in the street, after
being seized in their homes. 37) Kovno ghetto, the Kovno
Rabbi The Kovno ghetto is know as one of the worst
ghettos. One incident was horrendous. The Germans
constantly needed supplies to help them fight in the war they
were fighting. They needed some Jewish workers. So, they
gave 5000 work permits to the Judenrat to distribute. The
work permits would allow Jews to leave the ghetto so they
be able to work for the Germans. The permits may actually
save their lives. Only 5000 Jews could escape the tragedies
of the ghetto. The Judenrat didn’t know what to do. They
could burn all the permits, or choose the people at random.
The Kovno Rabbi said if the community of Jews is
threatened by persecution, and some may be saved, then the
leaders of the community must muster up as much courage
as they can to rescue as many as possible. Their problem
was solved when the Jews of the Ghetto found out that there
were 5000 work permits in the Judenrat. They ran a raid,
and there were many injuries. Whatever permits were there
in the Judenrat, were stolen. There were many injuries due to
the raid. 26,400 Jews were lined up every day, and few by
few, they were shot. There were many other tragedies of the
Kovno ghetto, one of them being the time the German Police
set fire to a Kovno Ghetto hospital. 38) Arthur Zygelboym
He was the leader of the Jewish Labor Bund. He committed
suicide on May 11, 1943 (some say it was May 12), in
London, in protest of the ignorance of the world toward the
countless thousands of deaths in Polish Jewry. He was not
necessarily a suicidal person. To me, he is a martyr. He died
for a reason, not because he can’t bear life. In his farewell
letter, he wrote, “By my death I wish to make my final
protest against the passivity with which the world is looking
on and permitting the extermination of the Jewish people.
39) Warsaw Ghetto There were many people in the
Warsaw Ghetto. When word got to them about how the
Germans wanted to kill all Jews, they came up with an
uprising. There were two groups who organized the uprising:
ZZW, and ZOB. There were many hostage situations in the
ghetto. The uprising was unsuccessful, yet they accomplished
a lot. They destroyed and humiliated one of Hitler’s armies,
and they fought well for human dignity. 40) Adam
Czerniakow He was the leader of the Judenrat in Warsaw.
When there were 40 Judenrat officials taken hostage by
Nazis, Czerniakow was left free because his wife was also a
hostage. He tried to negotiate with Nazis, when they asked
him to give over 6,000 Jews daily. They would not save any
children, and furthermore, they said that his wife would be
the first to be shot if there wasn’t compliance. He committed
suicide, because he wasn’t able to comply. In my eyes, he
was not a martyr. 41) Rumkowsky He was the chairman of
the Lodz Ghetto. He was mean to them, because he thought
that the harder they worked for the Germans, the more of a
chance of survival they had. The truth was, they were all
going to die anyway. 42) Mordechai Anielewicz He was the
commander of the Youth Fighting Organization (A.K.A.,
ZOB) in the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising. He helped put
together the Anti-Fascist Bloc, which helped to initiate
underground resistance bands, to teach ghetto rebels various
fighting techniques, and to convert ghetto residents who
were still unsure of the appropriate course of action. 43)
Himmler The Gestapo was the Secret State Police Office.
The people who were in charge of the Gestapo, along with
all other political German police services, were Reinhard
Heydrich and Heinrich Himmler. Himmler was also the head
of the SS in 1929, and made it even bigger than it was
before he was in charge of it. Himmler became one of
Hitler’s most powerful and important agents. 44) Babi Yar
The mass murder of Jews in 1941 were atrocious.
Thousands of Jews were taken to the Kiev forest to dig their
own graves. Then they were shot on the spot. 45)
Nuremburg Laws These were a series of vicious anti-Jewish
laws set out on September 15, 1935. The Reichstag
unanimously adopted them, and established “Purity of
German blood” a legal category. Intermarriage between
Jews and Germans was outlawed, so was a German
working for a Jew- even if the German wanted to. The laws
also excluded Jews from all citizenship rights. 46)
Nuremberg trials These trials, held after World War II, put
many Nazis on trial. Many pleaded insanity, but most
claimed that they were just carrying out orders. Regardless,
almost all Nazis were either killed, or locked up in jail. 47)
Name five Concentration Camps 1) Auschwitz 2)
Buchenwald 3) Birkenau 4) Belzec 5) Chelmno 48) Name
three Death Camps 1) Sobibor 2) Treblinka 3) Majdanek
49) Name three large ghettos in Poland 1) Warsaw 2) Lodz
3) Kiev 50) Why did many Jewish Leaders Oppose
Resistance Many Jewish leaders were told by the
underground, things about the Nazis killing the Jews in the
concentration camps. The Jewish leaders felt that most news
the underground brought wasn’t true, and if it was, and they
cooperated with the Nazis, they would be saved. Since they
felt that nothing bad would happen, and even if there would
be troubles, it would be easy to escape the troubles. They
also believed that if there was a resistance, it wouldn’t
succeed, and your better off cooperating with the Nazis. 51)
List Four Places Where There was Resistance 1) Tuczyn 2)
Warsaw 3) Vilna 4) Sobibor 52) British White Paper 1939
This paper restricted immigration to Palestine. 53) British
White Paper 1921 This paper restricted immigration to
Palestine. 54) Establishment of the State of Israel 1948 On
May 14, 1948, the state of Israel was established. Israel
belonged to the Jews. 55) Trial and Execution of Adolf
Eichman 1961 Adolf Eichman was hunted down by Simon
Wiesenthal in 1961, and in 1962, he was put to death in
Israel for the crime of Genocide. 56) Neville Chamberlain
Neville Chamberlain (1869-1940) was the British Prime
Minister from 1937 to 1940. At first, he did not care to take
sides in Hitler’s conquest for more Lebensraum. But he later
stated that Hitler “deceived and disappointed him.” Hitler
promised not to attack any of Poland, if he was given a
piece of Czechoslovakia in which many Germans were living
in. Neville is known for his appeasement policy, when he
allowed Hitler to have the part of Czechoslovakia he
wanted. But then, Hitler broke his promise, and that’s why
Britain was angry at Hitler. The British government and the
French government announced that they would support
Poland if Hitler tried to extend his power over Poland’s
borders. Hitler tried to invade Poland, so, on September 3,
Britain declared war on Germany. Neville Chamberlain was
known for his policy of appeasement. 57) Goebbels Josef
Paul Goebbels (1897-1945) was Hitler’s Minister of Public
Enlightenment and Propaganda. He was commanded by
Hitler to make a boycott of all Jewish businesses in
Germany. 58) Jewish Combat Organization Also known as
the ZOB, the Jewish Combat Organization was formed in
Warsaw by existing political parties there. They helped by
training an army, and getting supplies for it. This organization
is a major factor in the Warsaw Ghetto uprising. 59) Storm
Troops The Storm Troops were the Nazi’s private army. By
the middle of 1933, the army had grown to over 400,000.
It’s mission was simply to terrorize those whom Hitler
despised- Communists, Socialists, trade union workers, and
especially the Jews. In 10 days, the Storm Troops took
15,000 prisoners into “protective custody.” 60)
Theresienstadt This was a place chosen by Reinhard
Heydrich, to be a place to keep prominent Jews, and elderly
Jews. It was a camp, but not a concentration work or death
camp. It served as a “model camp” or “transit camp”, a
camp to deceive foreign visitors. For the most part, whoever
came to Theresienstadt, just stopped there. They were then
shipped to another camp (extermination, work, of
concentration) as their final destination. 61) Treblinka and
Sobibor Both these places were death camps. At these
camps, the ten percent who were most fit, were selected for
work. The rest, were gassed. They were told to undress,
and the woman and girls had their hair cut. Then they
marched between files of police who hurried them along with
whips, sticks, or guns to the gas chambers. In these “shower
rooms”, they were rammed in, 1 person per square foot.
Ten to thirty minutes later, all were dead! The dead bodies
were burned to make room for new ones. These were two
of the most atrocious camps. 62) Wannsee Conference On
January 20, 1942, Reinhard Heydrich assembled a group of
thirteen state and party officials for a conference in a small,
private villa located in Am Grossen Wannsee. Reinhard
Heydrich and Adolf Eichman met at this conference. They
discussed their plans for the Final Solution, and the shift from
emigration to evacuation (a euphemism for “murder”). They
also discussed how to go about killing all the Jews in many
foreign European countries. 63) Wallenberg Raoul
Wallenberg was a Swedish religious gentile, who helped
save MANY Jews. 64) Simon Weisenthal Simon
Weisenthal is known as the “Nazi Hunter”. He is famous for
catching and bringing to trial many infamous Nazis, including
Adolf Eichman. He was a survivor of the Holocaust, and has
written many books along with many documentaries and
films. 65) Chaim Kaplan He was a member of the Warsaw
ghetto, and wanted all of the world to know what was going
on. He wrote a few long articles describing conditions in the
ghetto. He hid the articles in milk cans. So far, we have
recovered all but one of his milk cans containing descriptions
of the Warsaw Ghetto. If he would have been caught, he
would have been tortured to death, or shot on the spot. 66)
Oneg Shabbat Archive Directed by Emanuel Ringelblum in
Warsaw, hundreds of underground newspapers, private
diaries, and transcribed interviews were preserved. This set
an example for others ghettos, who did the same. The things
which were preserved served to be very helpful to us in
describing what life was like in the ghettos. 67) Police State
This is another term for a totalitarian state. A Totalitarian
state is another word for a dictatorship. In this kind of a
state, there is one ruler with absolute power. The idea of a
dictatorship was promoted by the Germans, and opposed to
by the French. Hitler was the dictator in the German
Totalitarian State. 68) Yanus Korzak He was a psychiatrist
who was offered to be saved by the Germans, but he
refused, because he wanted to stay with his people in
Warsaw. He was the head of the child orphanage there. 69)
Reinhard Heydrich The people who were in charge of the
Gestapo, along with all other political German police
services, were Reinhard Heydrich and Heinrich Himmler.
It’s headquarters were in Berlin. One thing they did was
investigate “enemies of the state”, which included Jews.
Reinhard Heydrich chose Theresienstadt to be a place to
keep prominent Jews, and elderly Jews. It was a camp, but
not a concentration work or death camp. It served as a
“model camp” or “transit camp”, a camp to deceive foreign
visitors. For the most part, whoever came to Theresienstadt,
just stopped there. They were then shipped to another camp
(extermination, work, of concentration) as their final
destination. 70) Hershl Grynszpan On November 9, 1938, a
terrible night in Jewish history occurred. It was called
Kristallnacht. Technically, there were no events leading up to
Kristallnacht, because the Germans were waiting for an
excuse for them to be able to go on a rampage killing
whichever Jews they felt like killing. Their excuse was Hershl
Grynszpan. In the fall of 1938, violence against Jews hit an
all-time high. The Gestapo had rounded up some 15, 000
Jews living in Germany, on the first people being Hershl
Grynszpan. On November 7, Hershl showed his anger for
being arrested by assassinating a German officer in Paris.
This was the Nazi’s excuse for killing thousands of people
on Kristallnacht. 71) When did the US Enter World War 1?
On December 7, 1941, the US entered the war, and
declared war on Germany on December 11, 1941. 72)
Chelmno This was a death camp, in which at least 340,000
people died from the gas chambers alone! 73) Yan Karski
Yan Karski was a messenger who snuck into the Warsaw
ghetto, found out everything that was going on inside the
ghetto, and reported it to the Warsaw citizens outside the
ghetto. Nobody came to the aid of the ghetto because they
didn’t have the guts and they hardly even believed Karski.
74) Evian Conference 75) The SS St. Louis 76) When was
Poland Attacked by Germany? Poland was attacked by
Germany on September 3, 1939. 77) When was Eastern
Poland attacked by the Germans? Eastern Poland was
attacked by the Germans on September 17, 1939. 78)
When was Russia Attacked? Russia was attacked on June
22, 1941. 79) When did the Germans Enter Hungary? The
Germans entered Hungary in March 1944.
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