Essay PreviewMore ↓
Passive Smoking: An Active Controversy
Our society uses media in various ways to coerce an audience to buy a certain product, believe a specific message, or assume a certain belief based on a particular ad. These ads appear in many different forms, consisting of television commercials, billboard ads, and print ads. To analyze a given message, an individual must be open-minded and be able to distinguish what the underlying theme is. Often times the message being portrayed to the consumer consists of numerous fallacies. In the print ad run from the R.J. Reynolds Company entitled Passive smoking: An active controversy, cogent reasoning is needed to analyze the message suggested to the readers. The R.J. Reynolds Company is using this paid advertisement to make readers believe that passive smoking is not harmful to one’s health.
Interpreting the ad, we find that R.J. Reynolds Company is stating that the reader is sensationalized by the media and is only feed the information that second hand smoke is harmful. In defense of their stance, R.J. Reynolds took it upon themselves to do their own research. In the ad, they reveal several studies that were conducted by “distinguished experts” stating that passive smoke is indeed much less harmful than believed by the average person. R.J. Reynolds Company states that these reports are “far less sensational-conclusions.” These so-called expert findings came from conferences that were held in Geneva, Switzerland, Bethesda, Maryland and Vienna. The advertisement goes on to state that the presidents of the two organizing groups (who are not doctors) state in a press release that environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and lung cancer have not been successfully linked. They also state that cardiovascular damage due to ETS also has not been linked. The ad closes with a statement that attacks legislation for heightening the fears of non-smokers and making them believe that ETS is not only harmful to their health but can also be deadly.
The ad Passive Smoking: An Active Controversy, is a paid advertisement by the R.J. Reynolds Company. Keeping this in mind while reading the article, the company naturally puts an extra effort in getting their own message across to the public. The average American citizen is not ignorant and knows that ETS is harmful and can have a detrimental effect on the body, especially the lungs. The claim made in this ad suggests that the media sensationalizes ETS but after R.
How to Cite this Page
"Passive Smoking: An Active Controversy." 123HelpMe.com. 19 Jan 2020
Need Writing Help?
Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.Check your paper »
- Breast cancer is the most common diagnosed cancer in women around the world. Currently, it is suggested that approximately 1 in 9 women will develop breast cancer and 1 in 28 women will die from it (Conlon, Johnson, Bewick, Lafrenie, & Donner, 2010). Over the past few years, the expectation after breast cancer treatment has not significantly improved. Therefore, it is important to identify the risk factors and causes of this cancer. Within recent years, many environmental factors have been studied with substantial relevance to breast cancer, however, one of the most controversial factors has been cigarette smoking.... [tags: breast cancer, cigarette smoking, tobacco]
863 words (2.5 pages)
- History has shown the two common ways of learning that humans have been using for centuries: passive observation and active experimentation. Passive observation is a way of taking things in by investigating and examining the subject without explicit interaction. On the other hand, active experimentation is direct interaction with the subject to acquire something about it. Those two ways can now be seen in schools or at work. In schools, some students learn new concepts by sitting through lectures and contemplating about the lessons or/and actively conducting experiments such as scientific labs.... [tags: Religion, Philosophy, Reason, Belief]
1893 words (5.4 pages)
- The Smoking Distance in Public Should Be Actively Reinforced Places are classified as public when they are open to the public, and such place include but are not limited to schools, elevators, public transportation facilities, museum, concert halls, theatres, auditoriums, educational facilities, hospitals, nursing homes, and indoor sport pitches. Between 2005 to 2009, nearly 34,000 hearth disease deaths were estimated to be caused by secondhand smoke in adults (Institute of Medicine, 2009). Secondhand smoking has a serious health problem but little attention is paid to it just because its effects are gradual.... [tags: Smoking, Smoking ban, Passive smoking]
1132 words (3.2 pages)
- A Breath of Fresh Air is my Right: Banning of Smoking in Public Places Is it fair for that person to get sick too, because he/she around with smokers. Countless medical studies over the years have proven the link of smoking cigarettes to the deterioration of the smoker’s health. According to Mazzone and Arroliga (2004), “Nearly 450,000 persons will die every year of a disease attributable to tobacco use. In the United States, tobacco use kills more people each year than AIDS, suicide, murder, car accidents, and illicit drugs combined” (para.... [tags: Tobacco, Smoking, Smoking ban, Passive smoking]
816 words (2.3 pages)
- Smoking kills every year, more than the number of deaths from car accidents, drugs, alcohol, AIDS and fire accidents combined together. The dangers of smoking are that damaging does not occur immediately, but after a long time. Moreover, not limited to the smoker, it affects others who are around him. There is no doubt that smoking is a slow-motion suicide, and murder of the soul and all legislative acts to prevent the killing self and expose it to the reasons for the loss, whether indirectly or directly.... [tags: Smoking, Passive smoking, Tobacco]
1721 words (4.9 pages)
- Active experimentation and passive observation are, and have been, key processes in the development of knowledge for humankind. For many people, knowledge that has been gained through active experimentation is often perceived as clear, precise and reliable due to the official publishing and confirmation of hypotheses. Passive observation on the other hand, is when one does not experience the event personally but learns from others’ experiences - it is therefore perceived as being more subjective and dependant on what each individual takes and understands from that experience.... [tags: Scientific method, Science, Hypothesis, Nature]
1666 words (4.8 pages)
- According to James Rachels, “both passive and active euthanasia are permissible.” (Luper and Brown, p.347). He gives a doctrine from American Medical Association quoting,” mercy killing is contrary to which the medical professional stands” (Luper and Brown, p. 347). He makes arguments against the doctrine as to why it would be rejected. One, a physician should let the patient end his life if he wants to so that the patient does not have to endure the suffering. However, Rachels says in that situation it’s better for the physician to kill the patient, rather than letting one die because using lethal injections can be painless and quick, whereas, letting one die can be a slow and painful proc... [tags: Death, Euthanasia, Morality, KILL]
1283 words (3.7 pages)
- There are a variety of ways to communicate with people and often times the type of communication chosen depends on the information being communicated and the personalities of the people involved in the communication. There are two classifications for communication, active and passive. Active communication consists of lining up schedules and attendance so people can be present. Passive communication allows people to access and respond to the communication on their own schedule. We will focus on three popular forms of communication including webinars, face to face meetings and email as means of communication.... [tags: Communication, Management, E-mail address]
721 words (2.1 pages)
- Passive learning was once the go to mode of teaching students in university and college, but the method has been changing over the years to have students become more involved using active learning, as it has been found that students perform better when actively involves in their studies (Shimanzoe & Aldrich, 2010). Similarly, Wasley (2006) argues that, students that are exposed to group work while learning, and are involved in educational activities outside the classroom, earn better grades and feel more satisfied with their education.... [tags: Psychology, Group development, Group dynamics]
1656 words (4.7 pages)
- In 1973 the American Medical Association adopted a statement forbidding ‘mercy killing’ but allowing the cessation of treatment when requested by an incurable patient. In his essay “Active and Passive Euthanasia” James Rachels argues that active euthanasia should be avoided only to satisfy the law, not because of any perceived moral difference between active and passive. Rachels’ essay gives a convincing, logical argument to allow active euthanasia in certain cases. Rachels questions the doctrine that the AMA sets forth regarding intentional termination versus not using extraordinary means.... [tags: Conptemporary Moral Issues]
698 words (2 pages)
R.J. Reynolds Company states that three conventions were held around the world to rule out numerous theories that ETS is harmful to an individual’s health, but never states the findings that were presented at these conventions let alone the doctor’s names that conducted the studies. The ad states that “distinguished experts” came up with the findings. Who exactly are these distinguished experts? They are not defined in their advertisement. For all the reader knows they could be average individuals with no more expertise them themselves. A distinguished expert could consist of a car salesman or a waitress. Without clarification or the correct credentials how is a reader supposed to believe the findings of a distinguished expert?
In the advertisement by the R.J. Reynolds Company, inductive reasoning is used to “prove their findings.” The entire message uses several broad examples to come to a final generalization that ETS isn’t harmful to one’s health. This generalization can be coined such because it is just that, a generalization. There is no core evidence of justification that results in a medical conclusion, which can be backed by a medical professional. After dissecting the article, it consists purely of questionable statements where no medical or academic evidence is shown to support its findings. Among these statements are numerous fallacious arguments.
The R.J. Reynolds Company failed to use relevant information and reasoning from unjustified premises during their entire message. They hoped for the reader’s ignorance with each statement they made. They stated in the ad that cardiovascular damage was not due to ETS, but do not show the supporting evidence to base this on. They did not prove this statement, but lead the reader to assume that it must be true. By using this fallacy, the tobacco company is assuming that its readers are ignorant and will not question their sources stated in the ad. The use of appealing to authority is used. R. J. Reynolds wants the reader to believe the word of their distinguished experts, but who knows if they are really expert professionals, and that they the tobacco company aren’t just alleging their authority. To make a strong statement and prove their case, R. J. Reynolds should have presented statements from medical professionals with certified credentials. A third fallacy used in the ad is suppressed evidence. R.J. Reynolds states the “evidence” that they have found, but never mention the proven medical findings informing consumers of the dangers of ETS. This paid advertisement by the tobacco company is simply a statement without any factual evidence.
The R.J. Reynolds Company makes a poor attempt to try to convince its audience that ETS is not harmful to one’s health. In order to make a convincing argument an ad must entail credible research, as well as the credentials of certified professionals making the claims. The title was unfittingly labeled Passive Smoking: An Active Controversy due to the fact that it isn’t an active controversy. This ad was trying to make it a controversy by switching the reader’s viewpoint, but accomplished the opposite. It makes the consumer believe even more in the harmful effects of second hand smoke because the ad lacks sufficient evidence to prove its point.
As we continue to become a more media based society, ads of this nature will continue to fill our magazines and newspapers. It is up to the consumer to develop a true understanding of rationale and legitimate advertising. The ad that the R.J. Reynolds Company published on passive smoking should serve as an example to readers that companies will say just about anything to sell their products.