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Liquid water can exist on earth because the orbit is at the proper distance from the sun.
The ozone layer is important to life on earth because it shields living things from uv rays.
Constant change and state of flux on earth is caused by slow moving convection currents in the mantle.
The internal heat of earth is a result of heat from radioactive decay of certain elements.
The main cause of over-use of minerals is expanding populations.
Earth is able to hold life because it has sufficient mass to generate gravity to hold gases.
The winds, ocean currents and hydrologic cycle from solar energy and the external heat engine.
Greatest loss of life comes from landslides and mud flows.
Theory of plate tectonics is a revolution because it shows the planet undergoing constant change.
Crust, upper mantle, asthenosphere, mantle, outer core, inner core.
Geology and human understanding -concept of the vastness of geologic time.
Two heat engines of earth- one internal and one external.
Scientific method of solving problems starts with data gathering and arrives with a theory.
The most abundant gas in the original nebula was most likely the lightest known element.
The first internal structure of the inner planets consisted of homogeneous mix of rocks, minerals, elements.
Concept of a large exploding star or nova near the solar nebula is based on evidence that our sun is not large enough to generate the heavy metals in the inner planets.
The evidence of life on this planet occurs in some of the oldest rocks found on earth.
The source of water on earth is from comet debris.
Compaction by the weight overlying layers is least likely to have led to differentiation.
Evidence from the Iron Catastrophe is based on the discovery of the layered structure of Earths interior.
Difference between earth and other earth like planets is distance from the sun and related temp differences.
Importance of Oparin-Miller experiments is that they produced organic compounds from inorganic materials.
“Banded iron formations” because they evidence that oceans, marine algae, and oxygen production were present 3 billion years ago.
Movement of hot material toward the cool surface is not responsible for modification of earths weather.
Most of the mass of earth is mantle.
The carbonaceous meteorite that fell in Australia in 1969 was momentous because contained amino acids and other organic compounds.
The age of earth-4.6 billion, is determined by analyzing meteorites and moon rocks.
The best evidence about the layered structure of earths interior is from reflected and refracted seismic waves.
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The presence of the asthenosphere is indicated by low velocity of both P and S waves.
The discovery of Asphere was important because it is partially molten and provides a layer on which plates could move.
The temperature below which a material becomes magnetized is called Curie point.
The nature of the outer core is convincingly demonstrated by the S-wave shadow zone.
One way to search for hidden chambers in the pyramids might be gravity meter.
One way to prospect for buried iron deposits is to use a magnetometer and look for positive magnetic anomaly.
The first attempt to reach the Moho was made from drilling ship at sea because the oceanic crust is relatively thin.
The core of the earth is believed to consist of iron-nickel.
The nohorovicic discontinuity is defined by an increase in velocity of seismic waves.
Lithosphere is not a zone of low velocity seismic waves.
The flow of heat from the earths crust is about the same through the continents as through the sea floor.
Your weight should increase slightly as you move from the equator to the north pole.
From geophysical studies, we have evidence that continental crust is about four times thicker than oceanic crust.
The observed rebound of lands that had been buried under ice-age continental glaciers is an effect of isostatic adjustments.
The best method to learn the history of the deep sea floor would be take cores from a deep sea drilling ship.
The most important source of waters in the ocean is from icy comets.
Almost freezing temperatures is not a difficulty in exploring deep sea floors.
Turbidity currents are great masses of sediment laden water pulled downhill by gravity-False.
The continental shelf may be described as a shallow sub platform at the edge of a continent.
If you want o study youthful exposed basaltic rock from the sea floor, dredge the rift valley of the Mid-Atlantic ridge.
During periods of maximum glaciation the continental shelves were exposed as dry land.
Evidence of sea floor spreading is most convincing in rift valleys of mid-oceanic mountains.
Submarine canyons are erosional and are found on both passive and active continental margins.
The benioff zone is considered evidence of a sea floor diving beneath a continent.
Evidence of sea floor subsidence is best seen in guyots.
The ocean basins lie at lower elevations that the continents because basalt is denser than granite.
The pelagic sediments on the sea floor consist mostly of microscopic shells of planktonic organisms.
Erosion by water flowing off glaciers is the least likely origin of submarine canyons.
New hydrothermal vents are most likely to be discovered within rift zones of mid-oceanic mountains.
The latitude where iron-bearing igneous rocks first solidified can be determined from inclination of the iron particles in the rock.
The main objection to Wegener’s continental drift theory was the absence of an obvious mechanism that could move continents.
Paleomagnetic evidence verifies Wegener’s idea of polar wandering.
Wegener’s studies on the location of the poles through geologic time concluded that the poles were stationary and the continents moved.
The name Wegener gave to his supercontinet was Pangaea.
The time of breakup from the supercontinet can be estimated from the magnetic anomalies and age of the sea floor.
The pattern of magnetic reversals at sea was the same for land and various ocean basins.
Land bridges were suggested mainly to explain the distribution of Paleozoic and early Mesozoic plants and animals.
The mid-Atalntic ridge is characterized by an axial rift valley, young outpouring of basalt lavas, and a great system of cross-faults