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Fermentation of glycine, water, sucrose, galactose, and glucose as induced by yeast.
This lab attempted to find the rate at which Carbon dioxide is produced when five different test solutions: glycine, sucrose, galactose, water, and glucose were separately mixed with a yeast solution to produce fermentation, a process cells undergo. Fermentation is a major way by which a living cell can obtain energy. By measuring the carbon dioxide released by the test solutions, it could be determined which food source allows a living cell to obtain energy. The focus of the research was to determine which test solution would release the Carbon Dioxide by-product the quickest, by the addition of the yeast solution. The best results came from galactose, which produced .170 ml/minute of carbon dioxide. Followed by glucose, this produced .014 ml/minute; finally, sucrose which produced .012ml/minute of Carbon Dioxide. The test solutions water and glycine did not release Carbon Dioxide because they were not a food source for yeast. The results suggest that sugars are very good energy sources for a cell where amino acid, Glycine, is not.
Fermentation is an anaerobic process in which fuel molecules are broken down to create pyruvate and ATP molecules (Alberts, 1998). Both pyruvate and ATP are major energy sources used by the cell to do a variety of things. For example, ATP is used in cell division to divide the chromosomes (Alberts, 1998).
By taking a Carbon Dioxide, rich substance and mixing it with a yeast, solution fermentation will occur, and then it could be determined if it is a good energy-producer. In this study glacatose, sucrose, glycine, glucose, and water were used to indicate how fast fermentation occurred. The overall result shows that monosaccharides in particular galactose and glucose were the best energy source for a cell.
Materials and Methods
There were five test solutions used in this experiment, water being the control, which were mixed with a yeast solution to cause fermentation. A 1ml pipetman was used to measure 1 ml of each of the test solutions and placed them in separated test tubes. The 1 ml pipetman was then used to take 1ml of the yeast solution, and placed 1ml of yeast into the five test tubes all containing 1 ml of the test solutions. A 1ml graduated pipette was placed separately in each of the test tubes and extracted 1ml of the solutions into it. Once the mixture was in the pipette, someone from the group placed a piece of parafilm securely on the open end of the pipette and upon completion removed the top part of the graduated pipette.
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When the top part was off, a pasture pipette was used to completely fill the graduated pipette to the top with the test solution used. Once totally filled, making sure no bubbles were in it, the pipette was turned upside down back into the test tube containing the remaining mixture of the test solution. Once the pipette was in place fermentation began. All the test solutions were measured for Carbon Dioxide release every five minutes for one hour.
Water and glycine show no Carbon Dioxide production, however; glacatose, glucose, and sucrose did the most productive test solution was galactose. Galactose released .17ml of Carbon Dioxide per minute with a huge production during the 20-25 minute mark of .85ml/minute of Carbon Dioxide. The rate at which yeast produced fermentation remained steady after the 20-25 minute mark of .065ml/minute of Carbon Dioxide. It remained unchanged after the 35-minute mark of .98ml of carbon dioxide; being the maximum rate of fermentation (Graph I). Glucose, the second most productive test solution produced .014 ml of carbon dioxide every minute and the rate of change was very different from that of galactose. The rate of carbon dioxide production was steady with no sudden burst of Carbon Dioxide production like galactose. It did not stop producing Carbon Dioxide, rather, it had reached a peak at the end of the hour of .94ml/mimute of Carbon Dioxide (Graph I). Sucrose, the third most product test solution produced .012ml of carbon dioxide every minute and like that of glucose the rate of change was very steady with no sudden Carbon Dioxide production like Glacatose. It never stops producing Carbon dioxide and it reached a peak of production, at the 60-minute mark of .87ml/minute of Carbon Dioxide (Graph I). Galactose(monosaccharide), glucose(monosaccharide), and sucrose(disaccharide) in that order proved to be the best solutions in which Carbon Dioxide production was the greatest, also proves in this order the best way for a cell to obtain energy.
During this lab, there were many things that affected the results, for example, did not notice the exact time galactose started to ferment, could not properly read the graduate cylinder, and bubbles in the pipettes. The most productive solution for fermentation was galactose (graph I). It produced the greatest release of carbon dioxide during the 20-25 minute mark. This suggests that this was the greatest period for energy production. This produced a total of .85 ml of Carbon Dioxide.
The second most productive solution was Glucose it is similar to that of galactose that is they have the same formula, C6 H12 O6, and only differ in there arrangements of groups around one or two carbon atoms. (Alberts, 1998). Isomers such as galactose and glucose only have minor changes in their chemical properties but these minor changes can have huge affects on them (Alberts, 1998). These changes could have made yeast able to produce fermentation quicker in galactose because yeast was able to recognize the different groups. Glucose had a very steady flow of carbon dioxide production. It would be a good energy source for a cell. Through the hour, the Carbon Dioxide that was produced never reached a peak as it did in glacatose; rather, it had a steady rate of production of .014ml/minute of Carbon Dioxide.
The third most productive solution was that of sucrose. Sucrose unlike galactose and glucose, which are monosaccharides, is a disaccharide. Sucrose is make up of glucose and fructose (Alberts, 1998). This explains why sucrose and glucose production of carbon dioxide is almost similar because sucrose is glucose plus fructose. Sucrose had a steady rate of Carbon Dioxide production. Sucrose released .012 ml of carbon dioxide a minute where as glucose did .014 ml of carbon dioxide a minute a very small difference between the two.
Glycine produced no carbon dioxide release at all. This was because glycine is an amino acid and not a good food source (Alberts, 1998). The yeast solution in-turn was unable to induce fermentation.
The control for the experiment was water. When mixed with the yeast solution it was unable to ferment. This is due to the fact that it did not contain, Carbon Dioxide; thus, would not be a good food source. The structure would be different then that of carbon sources and the yeast enzymes would not recognize it, therefore; would not ferment. This could be true with that of glycine too. This experiment could have been more accurate if fewer test solutions were used; if fewer solutions were used more time could have been spent on each one and done to more precision.
The different results could indicate different things about the solutions chemical structures, thus; tell how certain enzymes, in particular yeast, recognize them. Monosaccharides followed by disaccharides were the best energy producers. The yeast enzymes were able to induce fermentation on the sugar monosaccharides faster then the sugar disaccharides. Amino acid, glycine, was not an energy producer along with water, which is also not an energy producer. The yeast enzymes would not work on these substances.
Some further questions are; Are all monosaccharides efficient Carbon Dioxide producers? Are all disaccharides not as efficient as monosaccharides? Are all amino acids not food sources for a cell? and Are sugars the best food sources for a cell? Experiments could be done on these questions to find out the answers.