Physiology of Exercise

Physiology of Exercise

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Physiology of Exercise Class

Assignment #3 Chapter 3

1. Define the terms aerobic and anaerobic.
A: Aerobic – Oxidative formation of ATP by the use of O2.
Anaerobic – Formation of ATP via the PC pathway and glycolysis that doesn’t involve the use of O2. (Exercise Physiology Theory and Application to Fitness and Performance by Scott K. Powers & Edward T. Howley pg 29)

2. Discuss the function of glycolysis in bioenergetics. What role does NAD play in glycolysis?
A: Glycolysis is an anaerobic pathway used to transfer bond energy
from glucose to rejoin Pi to ADP. NAD is the hydrogen acceptor. (p 29 & 30)

3. How is bioenergetics controlled? What are rate-limiting enzymes and how do they operate?
A: Regulation of one or more enzymes in a biochemical pathway would provide a means of controlling. A rate-limiting enzyme is one enzyme in a metabolic pathway that determines the speed of the particular metabolic pathway involved. (p. 39 & 40)

4. What are high-energy phosphates? Explain the statement that "ATP is the universal energy donor."
A: High-energy phosphates are the immediate source of energy for muscular contractions. ATP is often called the universal energy donor and serves to couple the energy released from the breakdown of foodstuffs into a usable form of energy required by all cells. (p 28)

5. Discuss the interaction of anaerobic vs aerobic ATP production during exercise.
A: The contribution of anaerobic ATP production is greater in short term, high intense activity while aerobic ATP metabolism predominates in longer activities. (Pg 41)

6. Define the following terms: coupled reactions, organic reactions, exergonic reactions, endergonic reactions, and bioenergetics.
A: Coupled reactions – Reactions that are linked, with the liberation of free energy in one reaction being used to “drive” a second reaction. (p 24)
Organic reactions – Reactions that contain carbon. (p 22)
Exergonic reactions – Reactions that give off energy as a result of the chemical process. (p 24)
Endergonic reactions – Reactions that require energy be added to the reactants. (p 24)
Bioenergetics – Chemical pathways that are capable of converting foodstuffs into a biologically usable form of energy. (p 24)

7. Explain the first and second laws of thermodynamics.
A: 1) The first law of thermodynamics is energy cannot be created nor destroyed.
2) The Second Law of Thermodynamics says that you can never have a 100% efficient energy conversion, i.e., there must always be waste heat (Actually, it states "In a closed system, the total entropy will always increase or stay the same".

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)(Internet)

8. Define the terms glycogen, glycogenolysis, and glycolysis.
A: Glycogen – The term used for the polysaccharide stored in animal tissue. (p 27)
Glycogenolysis – The break down of glycogen into glucose. (p 27)
Glycolysis – a metabolic pathway capable of producing ATP rapidly without the involvement of O2. (p 29)

9. List and briefly discuss the functions of the three major components of cell structure.
A: Cell Membrane – The two most important functions of the cell membrane are to enclose the components of the cell and to regulate the passage of various types of substances in and out of the cell. (p 22)
Nucleus – Genes function to regulate protein synthesis, which determines cell composition and controls cellular activity.
Cytoplasm – contains various organelles that are concerned with specific cellular functions. One such organelle, the mitochondria is involved in the oxidative conversion of foodstuffs into usable cellular energy. Also contained in the cytoplasm are the enzymes that regulate the breakdown of glucose.

10. List and discuss the nutrients that are used as fuels during exercise.
A: During exercise, the primary nutrients used for energy are fats and carbohydrates, with protein contributing a small amount of the total energy used. Stored carbohydrates provide the body with a rapidly available form of energy. Stored body fat is an ideal fuel for prolonged exercise since fat molecules contain large quantities of energy per unit of weight. In order for proteins to be used as substrates for the formation of high-energy compounds, they must be broken down into their constituent amino acids. (p 27 & 28)Jason McAllister
Physiology of Exercise Class
Dr. Harry Beamon, Professor
Assignment #3 Chapter 3

1. Define the terms aerobic and anaerobic.
A: Aerobic – Oxidative formation of ATP by the use of O2.
Anaerobic – Formation of ATP via the PC pathway and glycolysis that doesn’t involve the use of O2. (Exercise Physiology Theory and Application to Fitness and Performance by Scott K. Powers & Edward T. Howley pg 29)

2. Discuss the function of glycolysis in bioenergetics. What role does NAD play in glycolysis?
A: Glycolysis is an anaerobic pathway used to transfer bond energy
from glucose to rejoin Pi to ADP. NAD is the hydrogen acceptor. (p 29 & 30)

3. How is bioenergetics controlled? What are rate-limiting enzymes and how do they operate?
A: Regulation of one or more enzymes in a biochemical pathway would provide a means of controlling. A rate-limiting enzyme is one enzyme in a metabolic pathway that determines the speed of the particular metabolic pathway involved. (p. 39 & 40)

4. What are high-energy phosphates? Explain the statement that "ATP is the universal energy donor."
A: High-energy phosphates are the immediate source of energy for muscular contractions. ATP is often called the universal energy donor and serves to couple the energy released from the breakdown of foodstuffs into a usable form of energy required by all cells. (p 28)

5. Discuss the interaction of anaerobic vs aerobic ATP production during exercise.
A: The contribution of anaerobic ATP production is greater in short term, high intense activity while aerobic ATP metabolism predominates in longer activities. (Pg 41)

6. Define the following terms: coupled reactions, organic reactions, exergonic reactions, endergonic reactions, and bioenergetics.
A: Coupled reactions – Reactions that are linked, with the liberation of free energy in one reaction being used to “drive” a second reaction. (p 24)
Organic reactions – Reactions that contain carbon. (p 22)
Exergonic reactions – Reactions that give off energy as a result of the chemical process. (p 24)
Endergonic reactions – Reactions that require energy be added to the reactants. (p 24)
Bioenergetics – Chemical pathways that are capable of converting foodstuffs into a biologically usable form of energy. (p 24)

7. Explain the first and second laws of thermodynamics.
A: 1) The first law of thermodynamics is energy cannot be created nor destroyed.
2) The Second Law of Thermodynamics says that you can never have a 100% efficient energy conversion, i.e., there must always be waste heat (Actually, it states "In a closed system, the total entropy will always increase or stay the same".)(Internet)

8. Define the terms glycogen, glycogenolysis, and glycolysis.
A: Glycogen – The term used for the polysaccharide stored in animal tissue. (p 27)
Glycogenolysis – The break down of glycogen into glucose. (p 27)
Glycolysis – a metabolic pathway capable of producing ATP rapidly without the involvement of O2. (p 29)

9. List and briefly discuss the functions of the three major components of cell structure.
A: Cell Membrane – The two most important functions of the cell membrane are to enclose the components of the cell and to regulate the passage of various types of substances in and out of the cell. (p 22)
Nucleus – Genes function to regulate protein synthesis, which determines cell composition and controls cellular activity.
Cytoplasm – contains various organelles that are concerned with specific cellular functions. One such organelle, the mitochondria is involved in the oxidative conversion of foodstuffs into usable cellular energy. Also contained in the cytoplasm are the enzymes that regulate the breakdown of glucose.

10. List and discuss the nutrients that are used as fuels during exercise.
A: During exercise, the primary nutrients used for energy are fats and carbohydrates, with protein contributing a small amount of the total energy used. Stored carbohydrates provide the body with a rapidly available form of energy. Stored body fat is an ideal fuel for prolonged exercise since fat molecules contain large quantities of energy per unit of weight. In order for proteins to be used as substrates for the formation of high-energy compounds, they must be broken down into their constituent amino acids. (p 27 & 28)
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