Cold War

Cold War

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•     War without fighting
•     Concerned America and the Soviet Union
•     Atlantic Charter, Aug 1941
•     Tehran Conference, Dec 1943. FDR, Churchill and Stalin  What to do with Germany
•     Oct 1944, Europe divided into sections: Western powers and Eastern Block
•     Yalta, Feb 1945  Big Three. Aliies close to victory, Soviets in control of Poland. Cold War may have begun here.
a.     Germany disarmed
b.     Split into 4 zones
c.     USSR get half of reparations
d.     USSR join UN
•     Potsdam, July 1945
•     Truman is US president
a.     Germany disarmed
b.     De-Nazification
c.     War Crimes
d.     Reparations inkind (other countries can take goods)
•     Europe in 2 spheres of influence
a.     Communist
b.     Capitalist
•     Soviets afraid of US economy and atom bomb
•     Iron curtain decending upon Europe
•     Greek civil war  US and Russia fight with opposing sides, never fire a shot at each other
•     March 12. 1947  The Truman Doctrine
•     This doctrine proclaims a policy of containment
a.     American foreign policy must contain Communism
•     June 1947, Marshall Plan
a.     Sec. Of State, George Marshall stated that the US would give billions of dollars to whoever wanted it.
•     American goal: To rebuild Europe so it doesn’t fall to communism
•     Russians refused money
•     Other countries took them, but with strings attached
a.     Must open money to US goods
b.     Must open economic policies for US to look at
•     Berlin Crisis: Germany into 4 zones and Berlin into 4 zones
•     Berlin in Russian side
•     Goods come in by train, road and air
•     1948, new gov’t in West Germany
•     East German money was worthless
•     1948: Blockade of roads and rail by Soviets into Berlin
•     Berlin Airlift: US forces and British forces flew supplies to Berlin
•     Soviets gave in 1949

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