Classical vs. Operant Conditioning

Classical vs. Operant Conditioning

Length: 438 words (1.3 double-spaced pages)

Rating: Excellent

Open Document

Essay Preview

More ↓
Thoughts on Learning
“Learning is not compulsory. Neither is survival.”
–     W. Edwards Demming
“Education is what survives when what has been learned has been forgotten.”
–     B.F. Skinner
“I am always doing that which I cannot do, in order that I may learn how to do it.”
–     Pablo Picasso

What is Learning?

A relatively permanent change in behavior
that results from experience

Types of Learning
•     Classical conditioning
•     Operant conditioning
•     Cognitive and social learning
Classical Conditioning: Examples
•     Sound of a dentist’s drill: sweaty palms
•     Smell of mom’s perfume: smiling
•     Sight of certain restaurant: nausea
•     Noise of a can opener: cat comes running
•     Smell of a hospital: weakened immunity
Classical Conditioning
•     Discovered (accidentally) by Ivan Pavlov
Pavlov’s Observation
•     Studied digestion in dogs

Pavlov’s Experiment: Phase 1
•     Food (US): salivation (UR)
–     Reflexive response
•     Tone (CS): nothing (CR)
Pavlov’s Experiment: Phase 2
•     CS is repeatedly paired with the US
–     A tone is sounded before the food is presented
Pavlov’s Experiment: Phase 3
•     Eventually, the CS elicits a new CR
–     Hearing the tone by itself causes salivation
Classical Conditioning:
Conditioned Emotional Response
•     Avoidance learning
•     Conditioned phobias
–     Little Albert
Classical Conditioning
•     Extinction
•     Spontaneous recovery
Classical Conditioning
•     Stimulus generalization
•     Stimulus discrimination
Higher Order Conditioning
•     Pair CS1 with a new CS2
•     CS2: CR
•     But, CR will be weaker

Classical Conditioning Applied
•     Drug overdoses
•     Smoking: environmental cues
•     Systematic desensitization
•     Advertising: sex appeal
•     Taste aversion
•     Conditioning and the immune system
Types of Learning
•     Classical Conditioning
•     Operant Conditioning
•     Cognitive and Social Learning
Operant Conditioning: Examples
•     Tantrums are punished: fewer tantrums
•     Tantrums bring attention: more tantrums
•     Slot machine pays out: gamble more
•     Reward dog for sitting: dog is likely to sit
Operant Conditioning
•     Thorndike’s puzzle box
–     Law of Effect: actions that have positive outcomes are likely repeated
•     Skinner box
Operant Conditioning: Principles
•     Stimulus-Response
•     Reinforcement
–     Positive reinforcement
–     Negative reinforcement
Effective Punishment
•     Should be
–     Swift
–     Consistent
–     Appropriately aversive
•     Challenges
–     Physical punishment may be imitated
–     May fear the person who punishes
•     Most effective when paired with reinforcers
•     Primary reinforcers
•     Secondary reinforcers
•     Behavior modification
•     Immediate versus delayed reinforcement
Beyond Basic Reinforcement
•     Generalization
•     Discrimination
–     Discriminative stimulus
•     Extinction
•     Spontaneous recovery

How to Cite this Page

MLA Citation:
"Classical vs. Operant Conditioning." 18 Jan 2020

Need Writing Help?

Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.

Check your paper »

Classical Conditioning And Operant Conditioning Essays

- In psychology, there are countless approaches to how a subject could learn something; in this paper, however, we are going to talk about the classical conditioning, operant condition and also the application of it in the reality. First of all, we are going to discuss the differences between classical conditioning and operant conditioning. Classical conditioning is when unconditioned stimulus gets paired with conditioned stimulus so that the subject could learn it. However, the learners have to have neutral mindset about the conditioned stimulus in order to for it to be considered as classical conditioning....   [tags: Classical conditioning, Operant conditioning]

Research Papers
1125 words (3.2 pages)

Classical Conditioning Vs. Operant Conditioning Essay

- From the time we are born to the time we die, we learn new things every day, everyone knows that if you learn something new a day then you are doing okay. However, what most people do not know is how we learn and how our minds become disciplined while we are learning. There are two ways that we, as humans, learn new things. One is called classical conditioning. Classical Conditioning is a process where one object is connected with another object that generates a certain response. The second way is call operant conditioning, which is more commonly used....   [tags: Classical conditioning, Operant conditioning]

Research Papers
979 words (2.8 pages)

Classical Vs. Operant Conditioning Essay

- Classical and operant conditioning are similar in many different ways. They’re both the same by the learning that can be affected by the consistency frequency and time of the admiration. Classical conditioning pairs two stimuli and operant conditioning pairs behavior and the response. They can both phase acquisition and extinction and that may also be reversed by using other conditioning skills. These two conditioning each have their own differences by their different methods they use. Classical conditioning is a large type of learning that has to do with a major influence on the process that occurs through associations between an environmental stimulus and a naturally occurring stimulus....   [tags: Classical conditioning, Operant conditioning]

Research Papers
902 words (2.6 pages)

Essay on Classical Vs. Operant Conditioning

- Learning Learning is defined by psychologists as any change that occur in behavior due to experience. The behaviorism theory says that learning is the same for animals or humans. There are two type of learning: associative learning, which occurs when an individual put in relation two event, and the observational learning, which happens with observations and imitations. Conditioning, which is the procedure of learning the connection in the associative learning, is divided in classical and operant conditioning....   [tags: Classical conditioning, Operant conditioning]

Research Papers
1682 words (4.8 pages)

Classical Conditioning, Operant Conditioning And Cognitive Learning Essay

- Knowledge and skills come from experience and study, and therefore a lot of the things we learn are from what we observe. In psychology, learning is divided into 3 different parts, so this essay will elaborate on them. The three are; classical conditioning, operant conditioning, and cognitive learning. First, the Classical Condition is characterised by the things that are not learned; that we are born responding to. Also, in the classical conditioning there is the neutral stimulus that causes a sensory response such as being seen, heard, or smelled....   [tags: Classical conditioning, Operant conditioning]

Research Papers
763 words (2.2 pages)

Essay on Classical Vs. Operant Conditioning

- Learning and Development There are two types of conditioning which are classical and operant conditioning. The meaning of classical conditioning is when a neutral stimulus has been paired with another stimulus that would eventually make an automatic response. There are four parts to classical conditioning. The first part is an unconditioned stimulus which is a stimulus that causes an automatic response. The second part is unconditioned response which is a non-neutral stimulus that doesn’t need to be learned....   [tags: Operant conditioning, Classical conditioning]

Research Papers
1157 words (3.3 pages)

Contrasting Principles of Classical and Operant Conditioning Essay

- Learning is a very important part of Psychology and it has been defined as ‘any relatively permanent change in behaviour, or behaviour potential, produced by experience’ (Baron, p.169). Learning is a key process in human behaviour; it can play an important role in most of the activities we do. Even though the effects of learning are extremely diverse, most psychologists believe that learning occurs in several basic forms: conditioning – classical and operant and observational learning....   [tags: Classical vs Operant Conditioning]

Research Papers
2163 words (6.2 pages)

Essay on Classical Conditioning And Operant Conditioning

- Classical conditioning and operant conditioning both played a key role in the history of the study of learning, but, as argued by B.F Skinner, there are key differences to be noted between the two (Gleitman, Gross, Reisberg, 2011). This essay will first explore what classical conditioning is by using Ivan Pavlov’s famous experiment with dogs to explain how it works. It will then go on to describe how classical conditioning led to more research by Edward L. Thorndike and B.F. Skinner in the study of instrumental behaviour (Gleitman et al....   [tags: Classical conditioning, Behaviorism]

Research Papers
1499 words (4.3 pages)

Classical Conditioning Vs. Operant Conditioning Essays

- Learning in its most basic form is our minds associating one thing with another. Digging deeper reveals that there are trends in how human beings and animals learn by association, usually this is done by a brain connecting one event to another. The two different ways a brain tends to learn is through either classical conditioning or operant conditioning. Classical conditioning is learning to associate one stimulus with another stimulus, and Operant Conditioning is learning by associating a response or behavior with a consequence....   [tags: Classical conditioning, Behaviorism]

Research Papers
787 words (2.2 pages)

Essay about Classical, Operant Conditioning, And Observational Learning

- The differences Between classical, operant conditioning, and observational learning, there are many differences. The classical learning is tied with stimulus. Operant learning is when behaviors are reinforcement, or punishment. Observational learning is learning by watching things, and the way things are done by others. Classical learning ties in with stimulus. Ivan Pavlov did an experiment with his dogs on classical learning. He put the natural stimulus of food with the sound of the bell. The dogs would already salivate to their food, when they got fed....   [tags: Classical conditioning, Behaviorism]

Research Papers
889 words (2.5 pages)

Related Searches

Building Complex Behaviors
•     Shaping
–     Gradual reinforcement of successive approximations of target behavior
–     Used to train animals to do complex tricks
Reinforcement Schedules
•     Continuous reinforcement
•     Partial reinforcement
•     Fixed interval
•     Variable interval
•     Fixed ratio
•     Variable ratio
Reinforcement Schedules
Classical versus Operant Conditioning
Classical conditioning
–     Learned association between US and CS
–     Organism is passive
–     Responses elicited
Operant conditioning
–     Associate response and reinforcement
–     Organism is active
–     Responses emitted
Types of Learning
•     Classical conditioning
•     Operant conditioning
•     Cognitive and social learning
Cognitive Learning
•     Latent learning
–     Tolman’s rats: cognitive maps
Cognitive Learning
•     Insight learning
–     “Aha” experience
Observational Learning
•     Bandura’s Bobo doll study
Return to