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There was the school integration in Little Rock, Arkansas in 1957, where nine black students were admitted to Little Rock’s Central High School. President Dwight Eisenhower sent federal troops to enforce desegregation.
There were public accommodation sit-ins in North Carolina and Georgia in 1960, when four black college students began protesting racial segregation in restaurants by sitting at “white only” lunch counters and waiting to be served.
There were the freedom riders who traveled around the South in buses to test the effectiveness of the 1960 Supreme Court decision of illegal segregation in bus stations.
There was also education and voter registration drives in Mississippi in 1961, which organized voter registration campaigns in black counties. Many of these protests where organized by the student affiliate of SCLC, many northern white liberal supporters, and the SNCC which stands for Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee. The SNCC was founded in Raleigh, North Carolina in April 1960 to help organize and direct the student sit-in movement. They also concentrated on voter registration, believing that voting was a way to empower blacks so that they could change racist policies in the South.
Southern whites counter mobilized by reviving the infamous Ku Klux Klan who used violence or threats against anyone suspected of favoring desegregation or black civil rights. There was also the start of a new organization called White Citizens Councils. There goal was to maintain segregation.
One of the last meetings between civil rights demonstrators and southern whites came in Montgomery, Alabama in 1963.
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