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Herman Melville's Billy Budd is a classic tale of good and evil. Good is constantly attacked by evil - until good falters. Through the use of many literary devices, Melville makes a compelling story and develops his theme. He shows that the good and righteous will triumph over evil at the end, even when the evil is death.
The protagonist, Billy Budd, is the major force of good in the book. Billy is a young man who seems to have everything going for him. He is big, strong, handsome, and he has a personality that draws everyone to him. Everywhere he goes, he charms people, gaining the respect of those around him. A great deal of imagery is used in describing how aesthetically perfect Billy is. ***Give an example of this from the text*** Besides Billy's stutter, he seems absolutely perfect. Billy is a sailor. His original ship was the Rights-Of-Man, but he is later impressed by the Bellipotent and he becomes a foretop man. As usual, he charms everyone. They even call him "The Handsome Sailor." On the ship, Billy is respected by everyone except the protagonist, John Claggart.
Claggart is extremely jealous and holds a considerable amount of contempt for him. ***What is the relationship between Billy and Claggart?*** At first he tries to be nice to Billy, but soon his true jealousies surface. He begins to scold Billy for insignificant lapses and tries to degrade him. In one instance when Billy spills a bowl of soup, Claggart sardonically says to Billy, "Handsome is as handsome did it Deep inside, Claggart also thinks that Billy is secretly plotting against him. When his madness really begins to take over, Claggart starts thinking of ways to prove Billy to be a traitor. Finally, his chance comes when a guardsman approaches Billy in the middle of the night and asks him to join a mutiny effort with all the others that were impressed. The guardsman also offers Billy a bribe. Billy becomes so angry that he almost throws the guardsman overboard. When Claggart hears of this, he immediately runs straight to Captain Vere. Captain Vere is a well-educated, level-headed man. He is stern but just. He offers Billy a chance to see his accuser and Billy accepts. When Billy hears the lies that were being told of him, he goes crazy.
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Captain Vere knows that Billy did not mean for him to die, but he still calls a trial for murder. Captain Vere also knows that Billy was not going to revolt, but because of the mutinies that had been taking place at that time, Vere does not want to show any weakness. Billy could have probably gotten off had he turned in the other men who were actually planning to revolt but he doesn't because of his loyalty to his crew. He lost the trial and was hanged, his last words being, "God Bless Captain Vere!"
The use of symbols heavily influences the book. Most of the symbols are religious ones because of Melville's belief at the time. The most compelling symbol is that of Billy being compared to Jesus. Like Jesus, he is viewed as pure and innocent and having no real character flaws. He always tries to do the right thing and stay out of everyone's way. Claggart would be compared to the Pharisees with whom Jesus had to deal. His whole purpose is to cause the downfall of Billy, and he succeeds. Billy is also a symbol of Jesus while he is at trial. While Jesus is on trial, he says nothing in his own defense that could facilitate his release. Neither does Billy. Also, when Billy dies, his last words are "God Bless Captain Vere!" By this he was asking God to save Captain Vere's soul because he didn't know what he was doing. That is the same as when Jesus said, "Forgive them Father, for they know not what they do." Also, the monument raised in his honor symbolizes Jesus' resurrection. Captain Vere symbolized Pontius Pilate because he had Billy sentenced to death because he worried about what others would think of him, just as Pilate was afraid to upset Caesar with the release of Jesus.
The major conflict in the book is an internal struggle with Captain Vere. He knew that Billy didn't deserve to die and that he was not a traitor, but the common law at the time stated that he would have to be hanged. He is really distraught about what he should do. His duty is telling him that he should hang Billy just like any other murderer would be hanged, but his morality is telling him that Billy doesn't deserve to die and that he should be released because everyone knows what kind of guy Billy really is. ***This sentence is really long. I would suggest braking it into two sentences.*** In the end, though, Captain Vere's duty wins as it probably should, which is the climax of the book. Because of the point-of-view, limited omniscient, it is hard to fully understand Vere's thought process during the whole trial.
The irony in the book is subtle, the fate of each character is the opposite of what is led to be expected by looking at his nature. One might think that Claggart would be the one to kill Billy because of the obsession he had with him. It is strange to think of Claggart as the victim - but that was the case. The use of literary devices helps shape the novel into the classic that it is. The theme of the book is clear - regardless of the power of the forces of evil, and the small victory they claimed, goodness triumphed over all. Billy was a hero, even in his death.
***You introduce a lot of good ideas in this paper. You need to work on focusing your paper on one of these ideas. Choose the point you want to make - from your introduction, it seems that you want to discuss how the novel represents a battle between good and evil. If this is your theseis, then you need to make sure that everything you say in the following paragraphs works toward supporting that idea.
Your discussions of Billy Budd and Claggart in the first few paragraphs involve a lot of plot summary. It would be more helpful in supporting your thesis to, instead of giving a summary of what happened, discuss specific incidents in the novel and words that Melville uses to set up Billy as an icon of good and Claggart as an icon of evil.
The last three paragraphs seem to introduce totally new ideas - they are good ideas, but I would suggest incorporating them in way that is consistent with the purpose of your paper. Also, be consistent in your tenses. Choose whether you want to discuss the book in past tense or present tense (which is more common, but either is fine) and then stick with it. I noticed a lot of verb tense changes in your sentences, so make sure that you go back and check every single verb to make sure it is in the correct form.