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When we write data onto the hard drive Cit uses the law of electromagnetic
induction and some material is magnetic.
The hard drive uses two important principles about the magnetic
When we write data onto the hard drive it uses the law of
electromagnetic induction and some material is magnetic.
When we read data from the hard drive, it uses the Lenz's law.
How hard disk drive works:
Firstly we should know the two important part of the hard disk drive,
1. platters and media
We put all of the data onto the platters. They are inside of the hard
drive. There are several pieces of platter in the hard disk drive,
maybe three or four. They are made of special material. The material
must be strong and light. Because there are high rotation rates, when
the hard disk drive working. Traditionally, people often use aluminum
because it is a light material. But today, most platters are made from
material like glass or ceramic composite. These light, strong
materials have a very low thermal expansion, and compare to aluminum.
They can withstand higher forces. So the platters can run faster.
Older hard disk drive can only run at 3600 to 5200 rpm. Today's ones
can run7600 to 10000 rpm.
There is a layer of magnetic material on the surface of the platters.
Today a thin-film media is used here. Thin-film media is a microscopic
layer of pure metal bonded to the substrate surface through an interim
layer. Because the distance between head and platters is very small
(about 10 micro inches), but they can not touch with each other. So
the thin-film media is very flat and is coated with a protective layer
to help survive head crashing.
2. the arm and read and write head
The arm that holds the read/write heads is controlled by the mechanism
in the upper-left corner, and is able to move the heads from the hub
to the edge of the drive. The arm and its movement mechanism are
extremely light and fast. The arm on a typical hard-disk drive can
move from hub to edge and back up to 50 times per second. It is hard
to believe. But it is the truth.
Simply, The read and write head is a ferromagnetic core. It can
product a variety magnetic fields through a variety current to be able
to write data onto the media in ASC2. And also can product variety
current though inducing the variety magnetic field on the surface of
the platter to read data from the hard disk drive.
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Secondly, we should know how they work together.
Whenever reading or writing, the platters are rotated at a high speed.
The head and the media never touch with each other. Even if they are
working. Because a little touch can cause an immense damage of head
and the media` surface. When they are working, read and write head are
made to float above a platter surface by suspending the heads on a
layer of moving air. Just like the airplane flying in the air. But the
plane does not move, the air moves. Platter rotation creates a slight
cushion that elevates the heads. That is why all hard drives seal
their platter assemblies into an airtight chamber. The reason for such
a seal is to prevent dust, dirt, spill or stands of hair. Once they
land on a platter` s surface, it can easily result in a head crash. A
head crash can damage the head, the media, or both, and physical
damage can result in an unusable drive.
When you want to read data from the hard drive. First the heads move
to the area where you put your data. And then the head can induce the
variety magnetic fields and turn them into variety current and the
variety current is translate into the ASC2 code , at last the code is
sent to the CPU. The hard disk drive is done.
When you want to write the data on the media, the posses almost is the
same. But the principle is opposite. This time the hard drive receive
the code from the CPU and translate it into variety current and the
variety current product variety magnetic fields though the read and
write head to made the media magnetic.
What careers are related to the use of the technology?
Electronic design engineer: the engineer can design better read and
write head for the hard drive.
Structural engineer: the platter run very fast so a good structure for
the hard drive is very important.
Mechanical engineer: the motor need improve endlessly with the higher
rotation of the platter. The more advanced axletree should be found,
which can produce less heat.
Material engineer: find better magnetic material for the hard drive.
Make the thin-film media technology more mature.
Aerostatic engineer: calculate the air flow in the hard drive. Make
the arm be right height up the platter when the platter is at