Document Quality

Document Quality

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Document Quality

Measuring the rate of reaction, when dilute sodium thiosulphate
solution and dilute hydrochloric acid are mixed.

Hypothesis:

I predict that the higher the concentration of sodium thiosulphate,
the faster the rate of reaction.

Aim:

In this experiment I intend to test the collision theory. My aim is to
see if the concentration of sodium thiosulphate will affect the rate
of reaction.

Introduction:

In this experiment I will vary the concentration of sodium
thiosulphate to measure the rates of reaction. I will be mixing
different concentrations of sodium thiosulphate with hydrochloric
acid, the collision theory says the reaction time will alter; this is
what I will be testing.

The collision theory tells us that the larger the surface area, the
faster the reaction. So the higher the concentration the more atoms
there are to react. There are 4 things that affect the rate of
reaction, concentration, surface area, catalysts and temperature.
Concentration can affect the rate of reaction by increasing atoms to
collide with each other. The more atoms there are to collide, the
faster the rate of reaction.

In reactions where gases are involved, if you increase the pressure
the particles will move closer together. The smaller the space in the
container, collisions are more likely to occur. If the concentration
is weaker, this means there are fewer atoms to collide. If an object
has a large surface area, the reaction rate will increase as there is
more surface area for the atoms to collide. I hypothesis that the more
surface area there is the more space there is for the particles to
react.

Catalysts change the rate of chemical reactions but are not used up in
the reaction.

Examples of catalysts are enzymes, clay, and hydrogen peroxide. These
all speed up certain chemical reactions. Enzymes are found in the
human body, they are there to break down food and make digestion time
shorter. Enzymes can also be found in washing powder, to break down
food stains on clothes. Temperature can affect the rate of reaction to
a great extent because particles vibrate more at higher temperatures.
The more they vibrate the more chance there is that they will collide
with another particle, thus causing the rate of reaction to increase.

In a chemical reaction, the reactants collide with each other.

Pressure

This diagram shows us that the more pressure there is the more likely
it is that the particles will collide.

High pressure

Low pressure

More collisions as the particles are closer together

Not many collisions

Marble in dilute hydrochloric acid

This diagram shows us that surface area does have an effect on the
rate of reaction.

1 Large marble cube Marble
cube split into 6 pieces

In the experiment I carry out, I will change the concentration and see

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if different concentrations make a difference.

The equation of this experiment is:

Na2 S2 O3 + 2HCl 2NaCl + SO2 + S + H2O

Sodium thiosulphate + hydrochloric acid sodium chloride +
sulphur dioxide + sulphur + water

Health and Safety:

Before the experiment is carried out I must have a safe environment,
in order to prevent accidents.

* Wear goggles before touching any chemicals or equipment.

* After the experiment wash your hands thoroughly with liquid.

When sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid react, a gas called
sulphur dioxide is released. Sulphur dioxide turns into sulphuric acid
when it comes in contact with the moisture in your respiratory system.
The sulphuric acid can burn away layers on your throat, which could
cause a sore throat.

Apparatus:

· Conical flask
· Measuring Cylinder ( 50cm³ and 10cm³)
· Stop Clock
· Solution of Sodium Thiosulphate
· Solution of Hydrochloric Acid
· Water
· Sheet of paper with an ‘X’ marked on it.

Preliminary Work:

When I done my preliminary work I recorded the results on a table. I
did the preliminary work, so I can choose the concentration and when
to vary it in my experiment.

GRAPH

I got these results by following a method that the teacher gave us.

Preliminary Method:

* Fill up 5cm³ of HCL in a measuring cylinder and 25cm³ of sodium
thiosulphate in another measuring cylinder.

* Empty the sodium thiosulphate in the conical flask and then place
the conical flask over the piece of paper with the “X” marked on
it.

The next few steps we had to do fairly quickly.

* Add the hydrochloric acid to the conical flask, as soon as the two
solutions come in contact with each other, start the stop watch.

* Gently swirl the conical flask so the two solutions can react,
while doing this be careful not to breathe in the products
produced by this reaction.

* When the contents of the conical flask starts to go cloudy, look
into the conical flask from above and wait for the “X” to
disappear.

* When the “X” has disappeared stop the stop watch and record the
time on the results table.

Repeat this procedure 3 times with the same measurements and then
repeat the same experiment using the measurement provided in the
results table. The method must be repeated 3 times for each set of
measurements, in order to work out the average time when the results
need to be recorded onto a graph.

Method:

The method I used for the preliminary work is the same as the one I
used in the real experiment. I used the same method as nothing needed
to be changed, not even the concentrations of the solutions.

* Fill up 5cm³ of HCl in a measuring cylinder and 25cm³ of sodium
thiosulphate in another measuring cylinder.

* Empty the sodium thiosulphate in the conical flask and then place
the conical flask over the piece of paper with the “X” marked on
it.

The next few steps we had to do fairly quickly.

* Add the hydrochloric acid to the conical flask, as soon as the two
solutions come in contact with each other, start the stop watch.

* Gently swirl the conical flask so the two solutions can react,
while doing this be careful not to breathe in the products
produced by this reaction.

* When the contents of the conical flask starts to go cloudy, look
into the conical flask from above and wait for the “X” to
disappear.

* When the “X” has disappeared stop the stop watch and record the
time on the results table.

Repeat this procedure 3 times with the same measurements and then
repeat the same experiment using the measurement provided in the
results table. The method must be repeated 3 times for each set of
measurements, in order to work out the average time when the results
need to be recorded onto a graph.

GRAPH

Conclusion:

In my hypothesis I wrote “I hypothesis’ that the higher the
concentration of sodium thiosulphate, the faster the rate of
reaction.”

I believe the results I have obtained prove my prediction. My results
clearly state that my predictions are correct and I believe the
collision theory is correct. My results showed that the higher the
concentration of sodium thiosulphate the faster the rate of reaction.
In the experiment there were a few anomalies I came across. Not all
the results were on the line of best fit. They could have occurred by
me using contaminated equipment. I did wash all the equipment
thoroughly, but I did not have sufficient cleaning materials at hand.
Also the anomalies could have occurred because there was too much or
too little of a chemical. Again I tried my best to keep the
measurements accurate. Some of the bottles that contained the
chemicals could have been contaminated, but there was no way of
telling if they were or not, so I carried on with my experiment
assuming they were not. I noticed the anomalies where the graph was
drawn up. I could avoid these anomalies by decontaminating all the
equipment I used, make sure the chemicals I use are fresh and also
make my measuring of the chemicals used, more accurately.

Evaluation:

I think the experiment was fair, apart from a few anomalies. I could
avoid these anomalies by decontaminating all the equipment I use, make
sure the chemicals I use are fresh and also make my measuring of the
chemicals used more accurate. I could extend the experiment by testing
temperature instead of concentration and then compare the results. My
repeats are seconds out apart from the last row on the table. I think
that the results are as accurate I will be able to get them. The
measuring equipment I used could be at fault, I don’t the equipment
was that accurate. But in a school laboratory it is difficult to get
the results you expected.
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