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When dilute hydrochloric acid reacts with marble chips the following
CaCO3 + 2HCL = H2O + CO2
This is the reaction we will be investigating. We will be
investigating what changes the rate of reaction.
A list of variables that could affect the rate of reaction
- Surface Area
- Temperature: This variable changes the rate of reaction, when the
temperature is increased the rate of reaction is quicker, because the
particles have more energy to move around and collide with each other.
The more collisions between particles in a given time, the faster the
rate of reaction.
- Concentration: There will be a concentration of acid and a
concentration of water as well. This variable changes the rate of
reaction, by adding more acid in concentration than the water then the
reaction will take place quicker because there is more acid to react
with the marble chips, and if you add more water then the reaction
will take longer because there is less acid to react with the marble
- Surface Area: this variable changes the rate of reaction because if
we increase the surface area, we increase the rate. Surface area is
the measure of how much surface is exposed. So for the same mass of
the marble chips, small chips have a larger surface area than bigger
chips, this means that rate of the small chips will be quicker than
the bigger ones.
Here are reasons why changing the variable is likely to have an
- Temperature: if you are to change the temperature it will change the
rate as well. If you increase the temperature this will increase the
rate, because the heat gives energy to the acid and water particles,
which means they hit the marble chips more.
- Concentration: If you are to change the concentration there is a
definite change in the rate. The more acid you add the quicker the
rate because as you increase the concentration of the acid, there are
more acid particles in the same volume. Therefore there is greater
chance of acid particles hitting and colliding, with particles on the
surface of the marble. You have increased the rate of reaction.
- Suface Area: if you are to change the surface area it is going to
affect the rate. The larger the surface are then the rate will be
quick, the smaller the surface area the slower the rate. The more the
collisions between particles in a given surface area the quicker the
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A list of variables, which I will attempt to keep the same
Surface Area: I hope to keep the surface area constant by trying to
pick the same kind of size of marble chips.
Temperature: I will keep this variable constant by not heating the
chips and maybe checking the temperature every few minutes.
The variable, which I have decided to investigate, is:
I hope to carry out a practice experiment testing my method, just to
directly help me in my planning.
I predict that changing the concentration will change the rate of
reaction. This is because if you increase the concentration there are
more particles to react with the marble chips, so this is going to
increase the rate. Also if you decrease the concentration of acid then
there are fewer particles to react with the marble chips (this is the
I also think that increasing the concentration of acid will effect the
time in which it takes the reaction to take place; the reaction time
will be much quicker if you increase the concentration, vice versa.
Here is a diagram to show the collision theory: -
Anticipated Range of Measurements:
I think that I will use 50 Cm3 of acid down until 10 Cm3 going down in
10's, the same for water aswell.
Number Of readings I intend to take:
I intend to take each measurement three times because then I can find
the average of the results. When all the anomalous results have been
eradicated I will know that I have taken enough repeats.
Here is how I will carry out the experiment
- Get the following apparatus:
- Retort stand
- Conical flask
- Bung and tube
- 100 Cm3 measuring cylinder
- Hydrochloric Acid
- 50 Cm3 measuring cylinder
- Weighing scales
- Fill the bucket with water as well as the 100 Cm3 measuring
- Flip the 100 cm3 measuring cylinder without letting any water to
escape, into the bucket full of water
- Use the retort stand to hold the 100 Cm3 measuring cylinder
- Add the necessary amount of acid and water using the 50 Cm3
measuring cylinder to the conical flask
- Wash the marble chips to get rid of any dust, which could affect the
- Weigh the amount of marble chips you need
- Add these marble chips to the conical flask and add the bung and
tube to the conical flask
- Time how long it takes to get to a certain volume of gas
- Record results
Here is how the apparatus should look
Quantities of Chemicals used
I am going to use 2 molar solution of Hydrochloric acid.
Here are the mole calculations: -
Concentration of Acid = 50 cm3 2M
Concentration of water = 0 cm3
2M x 0.05 = 0.1 moles of Hcl
Moles = 0.1 = 2.0 moles dm -3
Concentration of Acid = 40 cm3 2M
Concentration of water = 10 cm3
2M x 0.04 = 0.08 moles of Hcl
Moles = 0.08 = 1.6 moles dm-3
Concentration of acid = 30 cm3
Concentration of water = 20 cm3
2M x 0.03 = 0.06 moles of Hcl
Moles = 0.06 = 1.2 moles dm-3
Concentration of Acid = 20 cm3
Concentration of water = 30 cm3
2M x 0.02 = 0.04 moles of Hcl
Moles = 0.04 = 0.8 moles dm -3
Concentration of Acid = 10 cm3
Concentration of water = 40 cm3
2M x 0.01 = 0.02 moles of Hcl
Moles = 0.02 = 0.4 moles dm -3
Concentration of acid = 0 cm3
Concentration of water = 50 cm3
I hope to keep my investigation as accurate as possible in order to
get the best results these are the techniques I am going to use:
- I will start the stopwatch as soon as the first bubble of gas is
seen, I will do this every time. This will also keep the results fair,
as if I started before the first bubble or after the results will not
be fair as I have not done the same for all the tests. This will also
aid the accuracy; as if I follow the same procedure then the results
will be as accurate as possible.
- I will use a burette instead of a measuring cylinder as it is so
much easier to measure a certain amount of acid, and is much more
accurate. This will also help my results immensely because it is so
much more accurate then a measuring because you may go over your
measurement but not know it, the burette stops this because you can
watch exactly where your measurement is.
Here are any special precautions I will use:
- I will try not to drop any acid while trying to pour any in the
conical flask; this is to stop having an unfair test.
- I will try and stop the stopwatch right on the 30 Cm3 of gas mark,
so that the test is fair.
Any special apparatus I intend to use:
- A funnel
- A syringe (maybe)
I intend to improve the accuracy of my results by doing the test three
times and finding the average of these.
- Wearing goggles: to stop any acid reaching or splashing in my eyes.
- Wash hands; after the experiment was hands as there may have been
some acid accidentally been splashed on you, so to stop the acid
hurting you then wash your hands
These preliminary results show that at a certain concentration the
rate is quick or slow. I didn't do the last type of concentrations
because I knew that they wouldn't be a reaction because water doesn't
react with Marble chips. These are the kind of results I expect to
approximately get, on the day of the experiment. Before the
preliminary test I decided that I would use 5g of marble chips, as it
seemed a suitable amount. The volume of carbon dioxide was chosen
before because we did a practice test and I had chosen 10cm cubed and
this reacted very quickly, so I decided to use 30cm cubed, as it would
take a bit longer.
Interpretation of figure 1+ 2: -
From looking at the graph you can quite clearly see that there is a
You can see that the highest concentration of acid, which is 50 Cm3,
has the fastest rate of reaction. As the concentration of acid
decreases then you can quite easily see that the rate, decreases as
the concentration decreases.
The only way of explaining this trend is by using the Collision
The higher the concentration means more collisions. If the solutions
is made more concentrated it means there are more particles of acid
colliding with water molecules. The increase of concentration makes
the likely hood of two particles colliding higher. If particles are
more likely to collide they are more likely to react. In this case the
higher the concentration of acid the higher the chance of the reaction
between the marbles chips and the acid.
Interpretation of figure 3: -
From looking at the graph you can see that it follows a similar shape
to the others except for the reading for the concentration of acid at
30 Cm3, as I have said earlier I think that this is an anomalous
result, because the reading should have been less than what it is, the
reading now has the same rate of reaction as the 40 Cm3 of acid which
is wrong as 30 Cm3 of acid is of a lower concentration than 40 Cm3,
and therefore less chance of collisions.
Interpretation of figure 4: -
From looking at the graph you can see trend. You can see that the
highest amount of concentration is 50 Cm3, which also has the quickest
rate of reaction. The lowest concentration of acid is 10 Cm3, and the
rate is very slow on this certain concentration.
This again can be explained by the collision theory.
The higher the concentration of acid, the quicker the rate of
reaction. The collision theory helps explain this because it says that
the higher the concentration of acid, the more chance of an acid
particle colliding with a marble particle, hence the quick rate of
reaction. The lower the concentration the less chance of colliding
with a marble chip particle, hence the slower rate of reaction.
Interpretation of results
I think that my results are fairly accurate to my prediction, as I
predicted that the higher the concentration the quicker the rate and
my results show this. I also said the lower the concentration the
slower the rate, and my results show this aswell.
I also predicted that the increase of concentration would quicken the
time for the reaction to take place.
I am not aware of any anomalous results that occurred during the
experiment except for the result for 30 Cm3 concentrated acid, I think
it should have been lower as it is a lower concentration than 40 Cm3
yet has the same rate of reaction.
I think this has occurred because of the following reason: -
- Human error, I probably didn't stop the stopwatch exactly on the 30
Cm3 of Carbon dioxide, or the wrong amount of marble chips added or
the wrong amount of acid or water added.
However there was only one anomalous result and the rest look good, I
think that my results were fairly accurate (obviously apart from the
anomalous result) kind of experiment.
I think that my observations and measurements were very good because I
had a lot of pre experiment preparation including the preliminary time
I was given so that I could practice my experiment. From this time I
had been given to practice, I made sure before the real experiment
that I had prepared everything properly so that on the day I wouldn't
have to worry about things, if I was doing them correctly, and because
of the previous experience I knew what to look out for aswell.
This is why I think my observation and measurements were good.
Were my results accurate?
I think that my results were fairly accurate, because I sort of knew
what to expect. But to make them much more accurate I could of done
one of the following things:
Take more readings and then find the average
Use marble powder because some chips have bigger surface area then
others and could affect the results.
Ranges of readings
I think that my rage of results are fine, because if you were to go
over this range then it would be too much and the reaction would take
place too quick.
I think that my results are good as I was expecting a few more
anomalous results, but I only got one. From this I think that my
results are good enough to sure of my conclusions, but there is always
room for improvement and I think I could improve my results by
decreasing the chances of human error which would mean I would have to
be alert throughout the whole experiment so that I can try to stop
these anomalous results, and if I can then I will be able to get the
Were my methods suitable?
I think that my method was suitable, as I had tested it before I did
the real thing, and I did it twice before the real thing, which gave
me plenty of time to make my method perfect, I didn't know if I wanted
to use 5g of marble chips or 2g and this work before I had done helped
me decide that 5g was a suitable amount for the actual experiment.
Could you do any further work to get more evidence?
I think that I could use a different variable, such as temperature, or
surface area etc. this would get more evidence as I could investigate
if temperature or surface area made any difference to the rate of