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In the tenth century, Europe was coming out of a torment of invasion, plunder, and rapine, by enemies’ form all sides. They were from Scandinavia, the Norsemen or Vikings that pillaged and harassed everyone almost to Constantinople. They were also plagued by the Saracens from across the Mediterranean and from the Magyars from the east overland. But no one will submit to this kind of abuse forever. Europeans began to retaliate and counter the thrusts of their attackers, raising the price of aggression. Over the years the northern tribes and Hungarian invaders gave up, settled down and domesticated. This end form danger launched Europe on the path for development and growth.
Western Aristocracy, however, did not foster the idea of a successful, efficient economy. The Aristocratic empires squeezed al they could out of what they had instead of looking for new ways to make more. They pressed and oppressed harder. These societies had no initiative and could not operate in terms of productivity. The medieval period that followed was considered a transitional society. These nomadic communities kept in constant motion mad nothing so special or valuable as to cause issues of ownership or other ambitions to power. In the centuries that followed authority began to weaken. The tradition of election passed on to hereditary rule, but the old customs and appearances also faded away and the ruler, even when designated at birth was formally elected. His power was weakening and some seeked to restore the empire that had once been. At this point the basis of economy in Europe was private property what could be held, defended, and conquered.
As communication and transportation came into people’s lives the contest for power in European societies gave rise to semi-autonomous city, or an organized commune. But nothing like the commune appeared outside Western Europe. The commune had a primary economic function to be a government of the merchants, by the merchants, and for the merchants. Also it functioned in its ability to grant social status and political rights on its residents, rights that are crucial to the conduct of business and to freedom from outside interference. These cities became gateways to freedom.
Migration to cities improved the income and status of the migrants. Self emancipation in Western Europe was directly linked to the franchised villages and urban communes.
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