Essay PreviewMore ↓
Dr. Jonas Salk commissioned Louis Kahn to design the Salk Institute of Biological Research near La Jolla, California. Salk believes that medical research should not be confined to science alone. In response to Salk's view, Kahn saw the possibility of uniting art and architecture with the functional aspect of the design. He agrees with Salk that someone with a mind in art, like himself, could contribute in creating a mental environment of scientific research. Kahn's pursue of this vision is apparent in his design process.
The earliest massing strategy was to place a linear group of vertical towers parallel to the face of the cliff (diagram 1a). In the second version, a year later, the towers were replaced by four rectilinear, two-storey blocks set perpendicular to the sea (diagram 1b). In this version, the four blocks of laboratories were made up of clear span spaces, made possible by five box girders running across each rectangle, with a 'V'-shaped folded plate system perpendicular to the girders, spanning between them. Later, Kahn simplified the configuration of the laboratories, from four rectangular blocks to two, upon Salk's request (diagram 1c).
In the process, Kahn kept he basic idea of the scheme, which was to place scientists' studies away from the laboratories in the central garden and to place auxiliary spaces in vertical towers on their external walls. However, he increased the number of floors to three, including the basement, and replaced the 'V'-shaped folded plates above each of the three floors with concrete Vierendeel beams.
Stringent seismic criteria related to construction in the San Diego area made it difficult for Kahn's structural engineer to convince local building officials, who wanted him to use steel frame, that concrete, Vierendeel truss system would have the required flexibility. They agreed only after a 400 page report of undoubtedly integrated deflection computations that shows how post-tensioned columns would provide the main resistance to lateral seismic forces. These columns absorb both dead and live load compression plus vertical post-tensioning forces. They were also designed to maintain zero tension if subjected to lateral movements by earthquake. The trusses are 9 ft deep, spaced 20 ft on center and have a clear span of 65 ft (diagram 2). He made use of the 9 ft high resultant space as service area, allowing pipe chases to be dropped to the 65x 245 ft floor below with more latitude than before.
How to Cite this Page
"The Salk Institute." 123HelpMe.com. 19 Jan 2020
Need Writing Help?
Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.Check your paper »
- Louis Kahn and The Salk Institute Standing alone against the endless blue sea, the Salk Institute by Louis I. Kahn is one of a kind. "Louis Kahn's Salk Institute for Biological Studies on the Pacific coast near La Jolla aspires within its own spirit to an order achieved through clarity, definition, and consistency of application"(Heyer 195). To many, this magnificent structure may seem out of place, but it works well with the surrounding environment because of the spatial continuity that it possesses.... [tags: Architecture]
764 words (2.2 pages)
- The World Cured Salk once said, “Hope lies in dreams, in imagination and in the courage of those who dare to make dreams into reality” (About Jonas Salk). Jonas Salk went to college to get his medical degree, but never dreamed of becoming famous. After that, he got a job at a hospital where he then took an interest in diseases and on how they work. He was a great epidemiologist and later got invited to study these illnesses at the University of Michigan. This is where Salk’s dreams first became real.... [tags: Jonas Salk, Polio vaccine, Poliomyelitis]
1057 words (3 pages)
- In the United States there was a vicious enemy everyone feared. In the 1950s the United States was under attack by the ruthless Poliomyelitis virus. Americans lived in constant fear of their children contracting this horrible virus that left many children paralyzed. During the outbreaks in the 1950s foundations were created to fund research and create awareness to help find a way to eradicate the virus. Americans become focused on doing anything in their power to fight this virus off. Jonas Salk’s Exploration of Medicine and research led to the creation of the Polio vaccine that united the country, prevented further outbreaks, and introduced a new form of treatment which has limited the fa... [tags: Polio vaccine, Poliomyelitis, Polio, Jonas Salk]
1585 words (4.5 pages)
- Jonas Salk licensed the first polio vaccine in 1955, to the relief of a nation. A nation that had been through two world wars, a great depression, a president stricken with Polio and thousands of deaths from the disease. Beginning with the first outbreak of polio in 1916 the public’s, and scientist’s ideas on polio were limited. From 1916 until the creation of a working vaccine in the 1950s the stigma that went along with the polio disease grew and changed a number of times. This public perception made polio the major disease in the U.S.... [tags: Polio vaccine, Poliomyelitis, Jonas Salk, Polio]
2045 words (5.8 pages)
- Leadership Institute, previously known as LeadSTRONG, is a two day workshop for students to participate in small groups to exchange their ideas as well as learn more about how to be a leader in life. This event provides each individual with new perspective in the role and responsibility as a leader, including both the interior and exterior factors. The first annual Leadership Institute was located in SAC Ballroom B on both February 20th at 5pm and February 21st at 10am. Even though most of the speeches and events were take place in SAC Ballroom B, some of the activities were also placed among Ballroom A and entire third floor.... [tags: Leadership, Management, Idea, Leadership Institute]
830 words (2.4 pages)
- A remembrance in La Jolla, California, presents, “Hope lies in dreams, in imagination, and in the courage of those who dare to make dreams into reality.” The memorial commemorates the great virologist Jonas Salk (Salk.edu). Although many recognize Salk as the man who effectuated the eradication of polio, he also contributed to a vast amount of medical research. A comprehensive study of Jonas Salk includes his young life, early career, work with poliomyelitis, and later career and life. Daniel and Dora Press Salk became the parents of Jonas Salk on October 28, 1914.... [tags: Biography]
1080 words (3.1 pages)
- Although there is yet to be a cure for polio, Jonas Salk invented a vaccine that prevents the paralyzing virus, putting America’s worries at rest. However, before accomplishing this remarkable medical novelty, he was just the son of Jewish-Polish immigrants, born in East Harlem, New York, on October 28, 1914 (“Jonas” 1). With his parents emigrating from Russia to America with little money, Daniel and Dora Salk had big city dreams of prosperity. Like most immigrant parents, they had extremely high expectations of their children to both receive a proper education and bring honor to the family name.... [tags: Polio vaccine, Poliomyelitis, Influenza, Virus]
1908 words (5.5 pages)
- ... Salk, the people of the U.S., and the world, could stop worrying, at least about something. Jonas Edward Salk was born on October 28, 1914 in New York City. His parents were from Jewish immigrant families, and they never received a full education, but like most parents, they wanted better for their children, and were determined to see them succeed. When Salk was 13, he attended Townsend Harris High School, a public school for gifted children, where students had to learn a four-year curriculum into three years.... [tags: biography, paralysis]
566 words (1.6 pages)
- Jonas Salk: Savior of the World Polio is an unknown disease to most people under the age of 20, possibly even under 30, especially if they live in the United States. Polio used to cause fear in the hearts of most people in the mid 1950s. Fast-forward to today and this disease is essentially eradicated in the world. Dr. Jonas Salk is credited with developing the vaccine to prevent this disease. THESIS: The Salk injection vaccine was used for several years until it was replaced by the Sabin oral vaccine, however, as times change it is The actual name of the disease is poliomyelitis (Reis, 3).... [tags: Polio, Vaccine, Biography]
1644 words (4.7 pages)
- Dr. Jonas Salk An American hero once said, "Many wise individuals have had no formal education.... They possess a powerful intuitive faculty and are able to learn from experience, from what they observe" (Pamplin, Jr. and Eisler 127). Although not entirely indicative of his own past, this American hero was Dr. Jonas Salk and he believed that education was not always the key to success. The great innovator believed that the answers to life are often found in an individual's experiences rather than buried among the pages of a textbook.... [tags: Biographies Medicine Papers]
4817 words (13.8 pages)
Kahn consulted Luis Barragan about the design of the courtyard. Barragan told Kahn, 'Don't put one leaf nor plant, not one flower, not dirt. Absolutely nothing... a plaza... will unite the two buildings, and at the end you will see the line of the sea.' He also said that the courtyard would act as a facade that rises to the sky and unite the two buildings as if everything had been hollowed out. The simplicity of this idea supports Kahn's believe in 'timeless' architecture which was high above whim and fancy. Concrete was chosen as the material for the exterior facade of the towers, the Living and Meeting places, and slate was chosen for the courtyard to further emphasize the simplicity of the design.
In determining the mix to be used in the concrete, Kahn researched the components used in Roman pozzolana, in order to achieve a similar reddish hue. Pozzolana additive was put in the mixture to soften its appearance and to make a symbolic connection through time to the origins of this composite material. He paid close attention to the forms, which were made of 3/4-inch exterior plywood, filled and sanded, and finished with coats of polyurethane resin. Thus, they can be used as many as eight times before being repaired and refinished. Kahn also decided to accentuate the joints between the panels instead of hiding them by chamfering the edges to produce a V-shaped groove at these points along the wall surface. Solid corners and gasketed joints were used between sets of gauged forms to avoid bleeding and leakage. The conical holes left by the form ties were also not patched, so their spacing were carefully placed, and they were filled by a lead plug, hammered tightly to prevent corrosion of the steel ties.
Slate was chosen as the material for the courtyard because of its striking contrast with the concrete and its ability to convey the sombre dimension of an institution engaged in a constant struggle against life-threatening diseases. Later, the material was eliminated because of cost and replaced with travertine, which has similar symbolic connections. The travertine has not lasted as long as slate may have over time because of its relative softness, but has proven to be a perfect visual and tactile foil to the concrete walls. Teak was another material that was thought to be financially excessive at first, but Kahn decided to leave the material unvarnished and weather naturally to further reduce maintenance. Each decision in the design, such as mentioned above, has ensured longevity in an endeavor increasingly fraught with the risk of renovation or demolition.