Essay PreviewMore ↓
Currently, violence is commonly thought of as serious physical harm done unto another individual. Recently that definition has been rethought to now include milder forms of aggression. This is redefinition is key as instructors begin taking a fresh look at the problem of school violence, especially when it involves very young children. Aggressive children were once thought of as just going through a phase and eventually out-growing the aggressive behavior. But recent research has discovered that aggression in early childhood leads to much more severe behavior in later life. Because of these new findings, the purpose of this research paper is to discover the impact of early childhood violence prevention programs and if they would be successful in combating the issue of school violence.
School violence is a rising epidemic occurring every day, in varying degrees, at schools across the country. School shootings that are being broadcasted in the media are the most extreme and rare forms that seems to attract the most public attention to the problem, while bullying and other "smaller" forms of violent acts that are happening more frequently don't gain the same type of media attention as the occasional shootings do. Parents across the nation are thinking, “not my child, not my neighborhood.” They do not believe that it could happen in their own backyard or in an expensive private school, but it does. Middle and high school students are finally beginning to receive information from school and community prevention programs that are designed to help them to identify and deal with violence in their schools. But there is an alarming new trend of school violence that is occurring with even younger children in elementary schools which is having a tremendous impact on their behavior as adolescents and adults. Young children are becoming more and more aggressive towards their peers, which is directly escalating the problem of school violence and aggression in middle and high schools. Because of this, school violence prevention programs need to be implemented in early childhood educational settings in order to bring an end to the rising rates of bullying and school violence among kindergarten and elementary school-aged children and to prevent school violence later in life.
Today, the term “violence” in American society is generally reserved for only acts of severe physical harm towards another person. Because of this commonly thought, narrow definition, many educators and parents only see the school violence problem as intentional interpersonal violence between middle or high school students or from a student towards a teacher.
How to Cite this Page
"Abstract:." 123HelpMe.com. 19 Oct 2019
Need Writing Help?
Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.Check your paper »
- Abstract Expressionism is making its comeback within the art world. Coined as an artist movement in the 1940’s and 1950’s, at the New York School, American Abstract Expressionist began to express many ideas relevant to humanity and the world around human civilization. However, the subject matters, contributing to artists, were not meant to represent the ever-changing world around them. Rather, how the world around them affected the artist themselves. The works swayed by such worldly influences, become an important article within the artists’ pieces.... [tags: Art ]
1363 words (3.9 pages)
- The Human Abstract "The Human Abstract" has not received much critical attention on its own. Of the critical interpretations that do exist, many approach the poem by examining its various manifestations in Blake's manuscripts, reading it against "A Divine Image," a poem w hich was never finally published by Blake, or comparing it to its Innocence counterpart, "The Divine Image." Most critics seem to agree that "The Human Abstract" represents a philosophical turning point in The Songs of Innocence and of Expe rience, and in Blake's work as a whole.... [tags: Papers]
1206 words (3.4 pages)
- Abstract The topic of year round schooling is quite controversial and greatly misconceived by the public. Most school systems tend to steer clear of the idea due to lack of support and academic success. Year-round schooling is not for everyone. Benefits however, include downsizing of schools, the reduction of building construction, and the ability to effectively meet the demands of the community. Students and teachers are typically placed on a multi-track schedule instead of the general nine month school calendar.... [tags: essays papers]
1685 words (4.8 pages)
- Abstract: Currently, violence is commonly thought of as serious physical harm done unto another individual. Recently that definition has been rethought to now include milder forms of aggression. This is redefinition is key as instructors begin taking a fresh look at the problem of school violence, especially when it involves very young children. Aggressive children were once thought of as just going through a phase and eventually out-growing the aggressive behavior. But recent research has discovered that aggression in early childhood leads to much more severe behavior in later life.... [tags: essays papers]
2399 words (6.9 pages)
- Abstract More mental health facilities need to be made for adolescents. Adolescents experience the same mental disorders adults do, but there is not the same amount of places for children to go to for help. The history of mental health facilities in the United States today has been improving, and more changes are being made as we speak today by President Bush. The process of being admitted to a ward is also a long process that is the same for children and adults. It involves the emergency room at the hospital and even long hours of waiting for a bed to open while stuck in the crisis unit.... [tags: essays papers]
3431 words (9.8 pages)
- Abstract Geometry The ancient Egyptians and Babylonians discovered abstract Geometry. They developed these ideas that were used to build pyramids and help with reestablishing land boundaries. While, the Babylonians used abstract geometry for measuring, construction buildings, and surveying. Abstract geometry uses postulates, rules, definitions and propositions before and up to the time of the Euclid. Abstract geometry is deductive reasoning and axiomatic organization. Deductive reasoning deals with statements that have already been accepted.... [tags: Free Essays]
402 words (1.1 pages)
- Abstract Expressionism "What about the reality of the everyday world and the reality of painting. They are not the same realities. What is this creative thing that you have struggled to get and where did it come from. What reference or value does it have, outside of the painting itself?" Ad Reinhardt, in a group discussion at Studio 35, in 1950. My essay starts with the origin and the birth of this great expression in the twentieth century. This movement not only touched painting, it had an affect on various aspects of art-poetry, architecture, theater, film, photography.... [tags: Art Artistic Painting Paintings Papers]
1580 words (4.5 pages)
- Abstract Expressionism Abstract Expressionism started in America as a post World War II art movement. It was the first art movement that arose from America and put New York at the center of the art world. The term Abstract Expressionism was first applied to American art in 1946 by art critic Robert Coates. It is most commanly said that Surealism is it’s predecessor because of the use of spontaneous, automatic and subconscious creations. Abstract Expressionism gets its name from the combining of emotional intensity and self-expression of German Expressionists and the anti-figurative aesthetics of abstract schools where Futurism, Bauhaus and Synthetic Cubism came from.... [tags: Art American Artistic Painting Essays]
1476 words (4.2 pages)
- abstract expressionism It was a full 170 years after Americans had their political revolution that they won an aesthetic revolution. American art to get rid of its inhibiting mechanisms- provincialism, over-dependence on European sources, and an indifferent public- and liberate itself into a quality and expressive force equal to, or exceeding that of art produced anywhere within the period. Few would argue that the painting and sculpture that emerged from the so-called New York School in the mid 1940s was the foremost artistic phenomenon of its time and was labeled as the Abstract Expressionist movement.... [tags: essays papers]
1102 words (3.1 pages)
- Abstract Expressionism "New needs need new techniques. And the modern artists have found new ways and new means of making their statements ... the modern painter cannot express this age, the airplane, the atom bomb, the radio, in the old forms of the Renaissance or of any other past culture." Jackson Pollock Rarely has such a massive transfer of influence has ever touched the world as did in the Paris to New York shift of the 1940's and 1950's. All of the characters of American art were to be expelled in a rapid shift of power.... [tags: Visual Art Paintings Artists]
1808 words (5.2 pages)
Some research that has recently been documented is that young children are increasingly becoming more violent because they are being led to believe, mainly by the media, that violence is the only way or the best way to resolve their conflicts. Violence in the media has been a hot topic for researchers and parents for decades now because of the problem continuing to persist and even increasing. Violent television shows that are being directed at young children contain acts of violence that are leading to children becoming desensitized to violent acts (Freedman, 2005). If two cartoon characters are having a dispute, they hit each other over their heads with large mallets or hand over a toy imbedded with “TNT” and “blow up” the other character. These cartoons are making violence seem fun, common, and okay for use in everyday life. Characters come out unharmed and okay, while any pain or suffering is not depicted. Also, these characters are never punished or penalized for using violence to solve their problems, and are usually the “good” guys are getting rid of the “bad” guys. Because of these media influences, young children are finding it increasingly difficult to understand why hitting and pushing are not okay when it is in response to name-calling or other provocations, which they believe are just as bad or worse (Astor, 1995). The feel as if the other child deserves the violent action being carried out towards them. They see this retribution as fair. This aggressive mentality learned throughout early childhood and into late childhood, and eventually adolescence, is impacting their behavior in adulthood and is leading to worse behavior later in life.
Studies are proving that violence in early childhood does not stop or even decrease as the child grows and matures. Many parents believe aggressive behavior in early to mid-childhood is just a phase or it will decrease as the child matures, but this is not the case. Longitudinal studies show that there is a high correlation between aggression and violence in early and middle childhood with violence in adolescence and into adulthood (Astor, 1995). Aggression is stable throughout a child’s development, much like the stability of IQ measures throughout a person’s development (Astor, 1995). Aggression in elementary school students is measured basically by the number of aggressive acts that the child has performed and the frequency of the acts, peer ratings (by asking students who they think is the most aggressive student out of their class, second-most aggressive, etc.), and by asking teachers to rate the child’s behavior against other children the same age (Astor, 1995). Aggression has also been shown to be manifested differently in children of different ages. For example, in elementary school-age children, violence is mainly manifested in pushing, hitting, and mild to extreme bullying. As the child ages, their violence typically becomes more physical and more extreme (Astor, 1995). Examples of more extreme violent behavior include aggravated assault, arson, and even sexual assault. Aggressive children feel the need to “graduate” to the next level in order to prove their strength or bravery. Aggressive children (especially teens) also increase their violence because they typically end up associating with a group of other children that are aggressive and behave similarly to his/herself. Violent students often speak of getting picked on, being disliked by their classmates and teachers, and of feeling like outsiders with their peers/classmates. Because of this feeling of exclusion, they find others like them self and feel like they have strength in numbers (Astor, 1995). They will tend to “egg” each other on and to do more intense and dangerous acts. Most children, especially teenagers, will do things with groups that they would never think of doing by themselves. These cliques just seem to add fuel to the existing fire.
Studies have also shown that a high frequency of violent acts in early childhood is significantly related to the severity of violence and criminal behavior in adolescence and adulthood (Astor, 1995). An elementary school student who gets involved in the occasional fight will not exhibit as many criminal behaviors in adulthood as a student who bullies and exhibits violent behavior on a more consistent daily basis would exhibit. A twenty-two year long longitudinal study of 638 children found that eight-year-old children who exhibit early aggressive tendencies towards their peers and teachers were significantly more likely to be involved with the juvenile justice system by the age of nineteen than their non-aggressive peers were. By the time the aggressive study group had reached the age of thirty, they were four times more likely to have been convicted of a serious crime and had higher rates of spousal abuse, drunk driving incidents, and poorer educational success than the members of the non-aggressive group (Astor, 1995). Other studies have also shown that more than half of all serious crime in the United States, which include, but are not limited to, rape, murder, assault, and robbery, were committed by youths between the ages of ten to seventeen. This statistic is also not limited to the sex of the offender, so while aggression and violence are typically thought of a problem dealing mainly with boys, girls are not excluded from showing violent and aggressive behaviors (Boulter, 2004). But this problem is beginning to be addressed directly in the school systems where educators have the most direct access to students who are most at-risk to develop aggressive tendencies.
In response to recent, highly publicized, school shootings at Columbine High School in Colorado where fourteen (including the two gunmen) were dead, Michigan where a six-year-old girl was shot and killed by a six-year-old boy with a .32 caliber handgun, and most recently the Minnesota school shooting where sixteen-year-old student Jeff Wiesse killed nine people and then himself, there has been a greater awareness of the school violence problem. Teachers and parents are realizing that in order to combat the issue, many new strategies and approaches need to be implemented. Some of the new views are that students that are already exhibiting signs of violence need to receive counseling, practices need to be setup in order to ensure student safety, and prevention programs need to be implemented. Middle and high schools across the nation have begun implementing such practices as to install video surveillance, start up hotlines for students to anonymously report suspicious activity or to receive help, requiring sign-in of all visitors to the school, controlled access to school buildings, especially before and after school and during lunch, and performing random drug sweeps (Baldauf, 1999). Prevention programs have also become a popular means of combating violence in schools by bringing awareness of school violence and techniques for how to deal with aggression to students, teachers, and parents.
In order for these types of programs to be successful, they should be directed to an entire grade level instead of pulling out “trouble” students. Pulling out students that are at risk will only make them feel even more isolated. When increasing awareness and knowledge about violence, active involvement by parents and teachers is critical in order to keep positive influences within the children’s environments and to support the children. With involvement from the students, teachers, and community, clear policies have to be developed against issues such as bullying and aggressive acts and to provide support for victims (Astor, 1995). It is ideal and necessary to begin these programs at early ages. Starting as young as six-years-old, individual, group, and family counseling needs to be implemented at the first signs of aggressive behaviors in order to stop the progression and escalation of the violent actions. One program implemented in an elementary school encouraged the young students to openly discuss their feelings and to keep journals (when they were old enough to write) of their feelings. Teachers noticed, after just one on the program, that the number of fights between students dropped 94% from fifty-five to only three fights during the school year (Baldauf, 1999). Children need to learn early in their lives that expressing their emotions can be more powerful than hurting another student. Students need to also learn early that there are people who care about them and who will support them. This is why parent and community involvement is so crucial to the process. Research has shown that periods of low aggression can occur in even the most aggressive child’s development due to some form of intervention. This is most likely going to be a teacher that makes them feel special or like a part of the class. But that advancement can be overturned if the child has a negative interaction with another teacher or student, or feels rejected or isolated once again (Astor, 1995). Because of this fact, school programs need to begin early and remain constant as a part of the school atmosphere in order to keep progress long-term. Parents can also reinforce the ideals at home and especially during long school breaks, such as summer vacation.
Even though a small number of schools have begun to apply violence prevention programs to early childhood students, most school systems are ignoring the tremendous amount of data that proves that early childhood is the essential point in a child’s development that needs to be violence free. Lecturing middle and high school students that aggression and violence are not the keys to solving their problems is usually ineffective when the media has been telling them all along that that is how disputes should and are handled in society. School violence is not just a phase that will be grown out of; it is a major predictor of severe violent acts in adulthood. Attacking the preexisting problem is part of the solution to decline school violence, but preventing it all together is the key to stopping the epidemic.
Astor, R. (1995). School violence: A blueprint for elementary schools [Electronic version]. Social Work in Education, 17 (2), 101
Baldauf, S. (1999). Programs to prevent violence before it starts [Electronic version]. Christian Science Monitor, 91 (105), 3.
Boulter, l. (2004). Family-school connection and school violence prevention [Electronic version]. Negro Educational Review, 55 (1), 27.
Freedman, J. (n.d). Research on the effects of media violence. Retrieved April 23, 2005 from
Newcomb, A. (2001). Schools derailing violence [Electronic version]. Christian Science Monitor, 93 (62), 1.