Essay PreviewMore ↓
Gender influences women artists in many ways. Some artists utilize their artwork to combat sexism. Others portray gender through their art in different ways than male artist might. Additionally, the careers of women artists may be influenced by their gender (or physical sex).
The influence of the southwest is also very visible in the artwork of many artists who live or have lived here. Some are influenced by the diverse cultures who make this region their home. Others are influenced by the landscape. (I realize that this paper is not representative of all of the cultures which have helped to shape the southwest. This was not intentional. It is primarily because, regretably, I had a hard time finding resources on women artists in the Southwest who were from cultures other than Euro-American, Native American and Mexican-American.)
Through this paper, I hope to be able to show examples of a few of the many ways in which gender and the southwest influence the lives and careers of southwestern women artists, and in turn, how many of these artists utilize their art to change people's perceptions of gender, the southwest and southwestern cultures.
One artist whose art is strongly influenced by living in the southwest is Roz Driscoll. Driscoll lived in Arizona for seven years during the 1970's. According to Driscoll, the pieces in her exhibit, A Sense of Touch, " . . . grew out of traditions such as Native American pueblos, Indian temples and wells, Egyptian tombs. They reflect themes as, plateaus, and canyons of the Southwest . . ." (1999)
Another artist whose work was strongly influenced by the Southwest is Georgia O'Keeffe, whose art was strongly influenced by the landscape of New Mexico. In fact, " . . . that region's dramatic mesas, ancient Spanish architecture, vegetation, and desiccated terrain became her constant themes. ( Gale, 1998 )
Culture differences in the Southwest have also been portrayed through the artwork of many Southwestern women artists.
The artwork of Carmen Lomas Garza, who has spent much of her life in Texas, is strongly influenced by her Chicana heritage.
How to Cite this Page
"Influences of Gender and the Southwest." 123HelpMe.com. 18 Aug 2018
Need Writing Help?
Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.Check your paper »
- The Girl Scouts of Colorado claims to be an “inclusive organization,” who welcomes all children as long as they identify as girls (“Boy Wanting to Join Girl Scouts Told ‘No’”). However, an eight year old boy from Colorado, Bobby Montoya, wished to join the Girl Scouts and was turned away because he had “boy parts” (“Boy Wanting to Join Girl Scouts Told ‘No’”). In a news report aired by 9 News of Denver, Colorado, Bobby and his mother were interviewed concerning their plight (link). For his interview, young Bobby wore his long hair braided, and was clothed in a flowing shirt, skinny jeans, and knee-high boots: attire some may consider only appropriate for girls.... [tags: Gender Studies]
1479 words (4.2 pages)
- Southwest airlines began in 1967 as Air Southwest Co. Based in Dallas. They began serving three major cities in Texas, with only three Boeing 737 aircrafts. March 29th, 1971 Air Southwest Co. changed its name to Southwest Airlines Co. The company began service on June 18, 1971 from Love Field in Dallas to Houston and San Antonio. Founders Rollin King and Herb Kelleher were inspired by their location to create an airline that was focused on the people. The LUV airline prides itself with exceptional employees and “no frill” customer service.... [tags: Southwest Airlines Analysis]
2810 words (8 pages)
- The Colorado River resides in North America at 1,450 miles long it spans from the Rocky Mountains of Colorado flowing southwest through six other states into Mexico. During the 19th century, settlement within this region was limited to merely accessing the Colorado River. Back then adjacent water was strictly used to support life. Today, with our advanced water treatment and transportation methods, water is known for its more loose sense of sustaining “life” and that is of an economic sense. Now, we utilize water for more than just drinking.... [tags: Water Crisis in the US Southwest]
1633 words (4.7 pages)
- Culture and Gender Influences: Language Development There are many facets of language development including: the brain, delayed speech, and expected milestones. Biological factors in newborns are—for the most part—the same across the world. However, once introduced into their culture the differences begin to emerge, and it appears that there are some biological factors that influence gender based language development. Craig and Dunn (p 164) identifies play differences as one of the determining factors of gender differences in language development.... [tags: Culture ]
1964 words (5.6 pages)
- More than 32 years ago, Rollin King and Herb Kelleher got together and decided to start a different kind of airline. They began with one simple notion: If you get your passengers to their destinations when they want to get there, on time, at the lowest possible fares, and make darn sure they have a good time doing it, people will fly your airline. And you know what. They were right. What began as a small Texas airline has grown to become one of the largest airlines in America. Today, Southwest Airlines flies more than 65 million passengers a year to 59 great cities (60 airports) all across the country, and they do it more than 2,800 times a day.... [tags: Voices of Southwest Airlines]
1181 words (3.4 pages)
- It is said, that our parents right or wrong conduct shape our lives and we may become good or bad. The habits that eventually becomes part of our daily lives start in our infancy which may us express ourselves within our world. This can be said of many people growing up. I am no exception for I am the person I am today though in large part because of my mother and father. Growing up and even still today, I thought of the way of my parents thinking: there was nothing either could do. It was as if my parents where magical for any problem that would come up, meaning a broken toy being fixed by my father or my mother making strawberry milk.... [tags: Gender]
1891 words (5.4 pages)
- Southwest Airlines’ Sustainability and Future “The mission of Southwest Airlines is dedication to the highest quality of customer service delivered with a sense of warmth, friendliness, individual pride, and company spirit (Southwest Airlines, 2009).” Since its conception in 1971 by founders Rollin King and Herb Kelleher, Southwest Airlines has stood by their mission statement. The simplistic belief of "If you get your passengers to their destinations when they want to get there, on time, at the lowest possible fares, and make darn sure they have a good time doing it, people will fly your airline (Southwest Airlines, 2009)” has served Southwest in becoming a major competitor in the airlin... [tags: Southwest Airline Industry Case Study]
2038 words (5.8 pages)
- The History of Southwest Airlines Southwest Airlines (SWA) begins in June 18, 1971, when SWA first operated a first airline consul between Houston, Dallas and San Antonio. Rollin King and Herb Kelleher are the founders of the company. The end of 1971 SWA immediately began to expand. In 1972 all Houston service is transferred to Houston's Hobby Airport form Houston Intercontinental, that is make more convenient for people to fly. During the first year of operations the customers were the Southwest's first priority.... [tags: Southwest Airlines Aviation Airplanes Essays]
3808 words (10.9 pages)
- Abstract The seventh largest major domestic airline in the United States (US), Southwest Airlines, is commonly known or referred to as a low-cost carrier. Southwest Airlines is the only major airline that provides short-haul, point-to-point service in the United States. In fact it was the first airline of its type ever started; it has become the archetypical low-cost airline. The idea has proven itself so well, that other start-up airlines have based their company strategies upon the basics of Southwest.... [tags: Aviation Southwest Airlines Flying Essays]
3920 words (11.2 pages)
- Changes in cost and efficiency The situation today in the airline industry is basically a price/cost war. Companies are battling to cut and keep their operating cost low in order to remain competitive in an industry that is strongly driven by price. The principal cost factors that drive the industry are labor and fuel. In terms of labor Neeleman, Jetblue’s CEO, said that “The biggest problem in the industry isn’t pay, its work rules”. Labor cost accounts for the 38% of the overall operating cost of an airline company.... [tags: essays research papers]
369 words (1.1 pages)
Wendy Rose, who is primarily American Indian (Hopi and Chowchilla Miwok) but is also partly German and England, like Garza portrays symbols and traditions from her cultural background in her artwork. Rose has,
" . . . transformed rejection into a source of strength. In her many self-portraits (which do not always resemble her physically) she identifies her various feelings and ideas with figures from her ancestral past, speaking also for her people-retelling and revitalizing stories which have been lost, devalued, or misinterpreted in American history and literature." (Hedges and Wendt, 1980, p. 195)
Women artists are often faced with challenges which male artists may not face. For example, in the past, women were not encouraged to work outside of the home. Other women artists may face difficulties in finding time to create artwork, due to having to take care of children. Even women who did not face the demands of having to care for children may have not had as many financial resources available to them as their male counterparts. Additionally, especially in the past, women did not have as many educational opportunities as men. In fact, " . . . it was not until the 1870's that women gained access to a higher education equivalent to that which had been available to men in the United States since the seventeenth century. (Hedges and Wendt, 1980, p. 77) Additionally, women artists have to combat many stereotypes of women. Women have been considered less intelligent than men and as, " . . . less worthy of education, and too weak to venture out alone to seek their fortunes." (Hedges and Wendt, 1980, p. 77)
Even those women who do manage to establish careers in the art field may still face sexism and stereotypes. For example, Bailey Doogan, who is currently a professor at the University of Arizona, as well as an award winning artist, faced an interesting challenge during one of her first jobs as an artist. She attended a meeting at a men's club with a prospective client who had not realized that he would be meeting with a woman. (Byerly, 1999)
Carmen Lomas Garza also has faced sexism in her career. She has found that the majority of Chicano artists are males. Additionally, many of these artists have a very narrow definition of artwork. According to many of them, "Anything outside of that is not Chicano art and you're not a Chicano. It really bothers me because it's a very unexplored narrow way to define." (Garza, 1980, p. 202)
Rather than calmly accepting the stereotypes applied to women, many women artists choose to utilize art as a tool to combat these stereotypes and others which are applied to themselves and others by mainstream society.
One woman artist who is working to change stereotypes of women is Bailey Doogan, who, " . . . has made a specialty of painting women's real-life bodies, the seams and folds of their middle-aged flesh lovingly rendered." ( Tucson Weekly, 1995) By doing this, Doogan, " . . . challenges our cultural discomfort with . . . body changes, and probes limiting anti-woman stereotypes of all stripes." ( Regan, 1998 ) It is also Doogan's , ". . . intention to chart woman's uneasy place in the culture." ( Tucson Weekly, 1995) Doogan's nudes are quite different than those traditionally painted by male artists. These male renditions typically portray women as subjective (Berger, 1972, 46) as well as being beautiful objects painted for male viewers (Berger, 1972, p. 51). Unlike these traditional nudes, Doogan's nudes are not traditionally aesthetically pleasing. Doogan additionally challenges the traditional European stereotypes in pieces such as "Angry Aging Bitch (RIB)" and "Virgin/Whore (GO)". ( Regan, 1998)
Harmony Hammond, who is also a well known artist and a professor of the University of Arizona also utilizes her artwork to confront gender issues. In her University of Arizona Museum of Art exhibit Landscapes of Exploitation, Hammond explored the usage of the landscape as a metaphor for women and their bodies from a woman's perspective. (Lafrenz, 1999, p. 14) She does this by incorporating found objects, such as kettles and pots, which are related to the roles of rural American women into her artwork in such a way that they, " . . . convey a sense of the oppression and domestication of women in their daily lives and duties," as well as portraying, " . . . a sense of the oppression and domestication of women in their daily lives and duties." (Lafrenz, 1999, p. 14)
Another Southwestern woman whose artwork helps to change viewers perceptions of gender is Pamela Joseph . Josephcurrently resides in Colorado. Says Joseph, "My paintings serve only to enhance woman's stature." ( 1997 ) For example, in her Calendar Girls Series , Joseph transforms the historical pin-up image by painting the women " . . . in oils, with heat transfers on full-size police shooting targets, then laminated and hung by grommets on the wall." ( 1997, p.1) Each of the women depicted, " . . . is a composite of the complex facets of the personality embodied by that month's events."
In addition to fighting stereotypes of women in their artwork, some Southwesert women artists also combat cultural stereotypes.
Melanie Andrew Yazzie , a Navajo woman, in her multimedia piece, Raggedy Ann, filled a trunk with items and keepsakes that remind her of her family. The trunks themselves are from her boarding school years. Behind the trunk is a Navajo rug, which,
" . . . was chosen from The Heard Museum's permanent collection because of the presence of the woman. The rug is truly unique for its time. The woman is holding an arch, a rainbow, showing her strength and quite possibly her oneness with her natural surroundings." ( 1997 )
Another American Indian (Seminole/Creek/Navajo) woman from the Southwest, Hulleah J. L. Tsinhnahjinnie , in her piece, Grandma and Me, corrects the "presumptuous claims of ownership and kinship" depicted in a 1950's centerfold collage on "Arizona's Navajo Land" in Arizona Highways magazine. She does this by inserting photographs of herself and her grandmother into the collage and writing the captions in Dine' (Navajo). Tsinhnahjinnie does this because she feels that the Dine' captions,
" . . . recognize intamacy and responsibility, whearas an Arizona Highways' caption, "Aged Navajo," denies a whole range of possible identities -- a council woman, a medicine woman, a master rug weaver, a star gazer, a translator, a teacher, a writer, a singer, a traveler, an organizer, a woman of thought." ( 1997, p. 2)
Naranjo-Morse (Santa Clara Pueblo), also utilizes her artwork to challenge hegemonic notions of women and of Native Americans. In her multi-media installation A Pueblo Woman's Clothesline, as Naranjo-Morse writes,
" . . . by hanging on this line garments that are clues to my personality, sexuality, social and political concerns, and connections to cultural traditions -- I am able to look at the messages that I send to the world and community as a Native woman of the late twentieth century."( 1997, p. 1)
One final Native American woman who helps to unravel misconceptions of women and of Native Americans, is Jean LaMarr (Paiute/Pit River) LaMarr's multimedia installation Minniehaha Lives is her response to popular images of American Indian Women created by Europeans, such as the princess/squaw dichotomy. In these European images, tribes are often mixed together. Additionally, "When a Native woman subject is not a sexual commodity, a baby or 'papoose' is added for allure and charm." ( 1997, p. 2-3)
As I have shown in this paper, Southwestern women artists are both influenced by society's perceptions of gender, cultures, and the southwest, and help to influence society's perceptions of these stereotypes. Instead of taking a passive role, many of these women are helping to change the way people think. Many women artists still face challenges due to misconceptions, but thanks largely to their own work, these stereotypes are improving, and hopefully may disappear sometime in the future.
The Southwest and its cultures, people and landscapes are very diverse. I have shown a small example of this diversity in this paper, however, due to a lack of resources and time, there are many aspects of the Southwest which I have not shown, such as the influence of the Chinese population who helped to build the railroads and stayed to help sculpt the southwest as we know it today. Or the influence of the African American Buffalo Soldiers who fought for justice here during the civil war. Or the Jewish population, or the gay/lesbian/bisexual/trans/questioning population, or the Middle-Eastern American population, or . . . the list goes on and on. Another characteristic of the Southwest is the diversity of landscape, which ranges from forests to deserts, from plateaus to praries, with virtually everything in between.
Throughout the history of the Southwest, both before and after the arrival of non-Native peoples, women have been an important part of history, which, sadly, has often not been acknowledged by predominantly white male historians. Also, throughout history, women have created art, even in cultures where women's art was not considered to be art at the time of its creation. Thanks in large part to women artists themselves, their own presence is finally begininning to be acknowledged. However, there is still a long path ahead of us all in the fight for human equality. I believe that art will is one of the many very effective tools which is being utilized in this battle.
Best of Tucson 1995. Tucson Weekly. [Online] Available. http://desert.net/tw/bot/art5.htm, 1995.
Byerly, Nate. The Feminine Critique. The Daily Wildcat, 12, January 29, 1999..
Chapa, Olivia Every. Getting a Start: Interview with Carmen Lomas Garza. In Hedges, Elaine and Ingrid Wendt, eds. In Her Own Image: Women Working in the Arts. New York: The Feminist Press, 1976.
Cheap Thrills. (02-13-97). Tucson Weekly. [Online] Available. http://weeklywire.com/tw/02-13-97/cheap.htm, February 13, 1997.
Driscoll, Roz. Roz Driscoll: A Sense of Touch. The University of Arizona Museum of
Art Exhibitions. (exhibit flyer), 1999.
Gale. Georgia O'Keeffe. Encyclopedia of World Biography. [Online] Available. http://www.gale.com/gale/cwh/okeeffeg.html, 1998.
Gaza, Carmen Lomas. Knowing Who You Are. In Hedges, Elaine and Ingrid Wendt, eds. In Her Own Image: Women Working in the Arts. New York: The Feminist Press, 1976.
Hedges, Elaine and Ingrid Wendt, eds. In Her Own Image: Women Working in the Arts. New York: The Feminist Press, 1980.
Joseph, Pamela. Pamopoly. [Online] Available. http://www.pamopoly.com/pamopoly, (accessed March 29, 1999).
LaMarr, Jean. Artist's Statement. The Heard Museum. [Online] Available. http://www.heard.org/exhibits/watchfuleyes/ajlm.html, 1997.
Naranjo-Morse. Artist's Statement. The Heard Museum. [Online] Available. http://www.heard.org/exhibits/watchfuleyes/annm.html, 1997 (accessed March 29, 1999).
Regan, Margaret. (10-19-98). Drawing Inspiration. Tucson Weekly. [Online] Available. http://weeklywire.com/ww/10-19-98/tw_review3.html, October 19, 1998 (accessed March 29, 1999).
Rose, Wendy. Native American Studies. In Hedges, Elaine and Ingrid Wendt, eds. In Her Own Image: Women Working in the Arts. New York: The Feminist Press, 1977.
Tsinhnahjinnie, Hulleah J. L. (1997). Artist's Statement. The Heard Museum. [Online] Available. http://www.heard.org/exhibits/watchfuleyes/ahjt.html,1997.
Yazzie, Melanie Andrew. Artist's Statement. The Heard Museum. [Online] Available. http://www.heard.org/exhibits/watchfuleyes/amay.html, 1997.