Essay PreviewMore ↓
Italy was the background for outside powers between the French invasion of 1494 and the accession of Francis 1 in 1515 for different reasons.
Between these years, the States of Italy were invaded on a number occasions by armies from France, Spain and other countries. At this time, the Italian States were very vulnerable; there were conflicts in Italy itself, they had out of date military equipment and Italy had insecure frontiers and unreliable allies – “That Italy failed to organise herself against invaders was due to the selfish policies.” This gave outside powers reason to use Italy as their battleground. Italy was a very wealthy country, showing this wealth, a Florentine Historian, Guicciardini said “Italy has never enjoyed such prosperity or known so favourable a situation” Also, because the Pope lived in Italy, it gave enemies more incentive to fight in Italy as opposed to any other country.
Another reason for Italy being the battleground was that foreign powers felt they had dynastic claims to certain states and therefore felt obliged to fight for them.
I feel the most important reason why outside powers chose Italy to fight in was basically because they ‘could.’ Italy was divided, unstable and disunited; there were even civil disputes e.g. when Venice and its neighbour Ferrara went to war. It was hard to keep foreign powers out of their country because they weren’t working together; each state was not strong enough to protect Italy on its own. The Papacy also didn’t help in keeping enemies out – “there was always scope for dissension between them (Orsini and Colonna); and while they remained armed before the very eyes of the pontiff, they kept the papacy weak and insecure.” Also, it was playing its usual game of self interest.
Pope Leo X in 1513 set about promoting the interests of himself and his family. He was prepared to negotiate for French aid to further his ambitions – this lead to more foreign powers (especially France), being able to easily use Italy as the main battleground. It can be disputed that the most important reason for Italy being the battle ground was that it was wealthy, but I feel that even though it was wealthy, there were certainly other wealthy states which could have been the battleground, had Italy not been such an easy target, with certain assets other countries did not have.
This leads me to the next important reason why Italy was the battle ground; wealth.
How to Cite this Page
"The Italian Wars." 123HelpMe.com. 07 Dec 2019
Need Writing Help?
Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.Check your paper »
- The Italian Wars Italy was the background for outside powers between the French invasion of 1494 and the accession of Francis 1 in 1515 for different reasons. Between these years, the States of Italy were invaded on a number occasions by armies from France, Spain and other countries. At this time, the Italian States were very vulnerable; there were conflicts in Italy itself, they had out of date military equipment and Italy had insecure frontiers and unreliable allies – “That Italy failed to organise herself against invaders was due to the selfish policies.” This gave outside powers reason to use Italy as their battleground.... [tags: History]
1732 words (4.9 pages)
- According to the school of realism in international politics, states operate in a type of system which has been dubbed the ‘balance of power.’ There are many definitions for it, but Morgenthau’s description of the theory as “an actual state of affairs in which power is distributed among several nations with approximate equality” sums it up well. While the term itself may be of the last few centuries, Hume writes that it “is founded so much on common sense and obvious reasoning, that it is impossible it could altogether have escaped antiquity.” That being said, the target region and period of time to be examined in this paper – the Great Italian Wars of 1494-1559 in Southern and Western Eur... [tags: History, War]
1394 words (4 pages)
- The Italian unification was brought by Camilo Di Cavour who was named the prime minister by Sardinia’s king Victor Emmanuel. Cavour was a man who worked hard and tirelessly to help expand Sardinia’s power. Cavour’s skillful diplomacy and excellent chose of alliance and set about gaining northern Italy for Sardinia. Cavour realized after a while that the road block was Austria. So in 1858 napoleon 3 agreed to help drive out Austria from Northern Italy. Cavour provoked a war against the Austrians and french and Italy went to war and won two consecutive wars in row.... [tags: italian unification, politics]
707 words (2 pages)
- Carthage vs. Rome; the Punic Wars Over the course of one-hundred years the Mediterranean antiquity was rocked by an ancient cold war between the North African seafaring state of Carthage, and the newly rising city of Rome located on the Italian Peninsula. In the course of two major wars and one extended three year long siege of Carthage itself Rome would conquer its last major foe and turn the Mediterranean into a Roman lake. As what happens so often, history is written by the side who wins and in the case of the Punic Wars and Carthage itself most of the information available today comes from Roman sources and authors whose knowledge has been passed down through the ages.... [tags: Roman History, Ancient History]
2042 words (5.8 pages)
- Life in Italy is much different than life in the United States. Italians live at a much slower pace, than American’s and they have a desire to enjoy life instead of rushing through it as many American lifestyles exhibit (Zimmermann, K. (2015). The extended family is very important in Italy, whereas in the United States, the focus tends to be on the nuclear family, which includes mom, dad, and children (Zimmermann, 2015). The differences in Italian culture and American culture are vast and varied, but with a few comparable components to demonstrate similarities.... [tags: Italy, United States, Family, Difference]
890 words (2.5 pages)
- German Nazism vs. Italian Fascism Fascism and Nazism were two different political groups taken place in two different locations. Nazism was evolved in Germany which were the people that mainly were against Judaism. As for fascism, it took place in Italy and focused mainly on a system of government that was under a dictator, or a ruler who had absolute power. Both these groups had similariteis as well as differences in which will soon be understood. Benito Mussolini which was born in 1883 and died in 1945.... [tags: Papers Nazi Fascism Compare Essays]
1024 words (2.9 pages)
- Discuss the Punic Wars. What caused the conflicts between Carthage and Rome. What were the consequences for both sides. There was a series of three Punic Wars between Carthage and Rome with the first occurring between 264 BCE and the last one ending in 146 BCE. The reasoning and motives for the three wars varies. However, no matter what the motives of the wars were, the end result was the defeat and total destruction of the Carthaginian civilization. Essentially, the conflict arose from the clash of economic interests.... [tags: World History]
964 words (2.8 pages)
- Italian Mafia The Mafia was first developed in Sicily in feudal times to protect the estates of landlords who were out of town. The word Mafia, derived from the Sicilian word, Mafioso, means family. Today, Mafia is a name which describes a loose association of criminal groups. These groups can be bound together by blood, oath or sworn secrecy. Many people had considered the Sicilian Mafia as the most ruthless mobsters of the twentieth century. By the nineteenth century, the Mafia had become known as a network of criminal thugs that dominated the Sicilian countryside.... [tags: History]
1302 words (3.7 pages)
- The Renaissance of Italy has been noted to come from early European history. More over, Italian Renaissance is closest to the middle Ages and the birth of the Philosophy of humanism As French forces began to prey on the Italian states in the late fifteenth and early sixteenth century, Rome became the focus of Italy's collective defense, and the pope the architect of that defense. Milan had fallen, and the northern states were under pressure, but they could survive as long as Rome remained strong.... [tags: Free Essay Writer]
479 words (1.4 pages)
- Discuss the Roman Punic Wars, in terms of their circumstances and overall effect on Rome’s economic and social development Also discuss the ensuing “Gracchan turbulence” from the same perspective. The circumstance for the Roman Punic Wars towards Rome was a simple human reaction. If an outsider such as Italy, Carthage, or Greece make threats towards Rome, Rome will simply fight. The Punic Wars lasted in 3 stages, all resulting to the obsessive pride and higher standings of Rome. Rome’s initial desire of expansion was only for farming land.... [tags: essays research papers]
924 words (2.6 pages)
The third most important reason for Italy being the battle ground is, in my opinion, because it was where the Pope was. The Pope meant power, wealth and influence. This also shows religious importance in Italy being the battleground – “The Germans, who comprised over half the force, included many followers of the fiery Reformer Martin Luther, they had and extra interest in entering Rome for the pleasure of despoiling churches and abusing Catholic clergy” This source gives us insight to the reason for fighting in Italy without much influence by the writers own feelings and thoughts etc. This quote has been taken from a book written by a man who was neither there at the time let alone part of the wars, thus would not have as strong or as influenced thoughts as others. This reason is also linked to how the soldiers felt towards the Pope; “They had been short of money since Pavia and the idea grew at the end of 1526 that the Pope was to blame for all their distress.” Thus causing the soldiers to want to fight in Italy – mainly Rome – where the Pope was.
Equally as important is the fact that foreign powers had (or at least thought they had) dynastic claims to some of the Italian states. Foreign leaders who had these dynastic claims felt obliged to fight for their rights e.g. Charles V’s claim to Naples through the House of Anjou. These dynastic claims lead to more foreign powers fighting in Italy.
As a bonus for foreign powers, Italy had out of date military equipment and standards – adding to the already unstable and disunited states. In France “his men-at-arms were almost subjects of the king and not low born but gentlemen whom the captains could not enlist or dismiss at will” this made the soldiers “want to work hard; serve honourably; glory; bravery and no other goal than to win praise from the king” As opposed to the Italians where “many of the men-at-arms were either peasants or commoners subject to some other prince and completely dependant on the captains with whom they contracted for their wages, and who had the power to pay and dismiss them.” This gave the Italian troops no incentive to serve well. There were also differences between the Italian and other infantries. “The Italians didn’t fight in firm well-organised units, but scattered throughout the countryside” whereas the French infantry “fought with similar discipline.” These problems in Italy gave reason to fight there.
The culture of the Italian states was unlike any other of the time. The renaissance was born in Italy. Renaissance pictures, sculptures, writings etc were significant to leaders in giving them a good name and more power because, if the art of the Renaissance was important to them, it showed their followers that they were cultivated, sophisticated and civilised. All kings wanted to be seen in this way – and therefore made Italy a more welcome candidate for outside powers to fight in.
Each of the outside powers had their own individual reasons of why they invaded Italy rather than any other country; other foreign powers simply had an interest in Italy- most probably due to the power it could bring them.
France invaded Italy for honour and profit (gained by ransoms, tax etc). It was the ‘thing to do’ when a king succeeded the throne and came of age. The French invasion of 1494 occurred primarily from financial incentives for Charles VIII of France. He declared that he intended to use Naples as a base to drive the Ottomans out of Europe and liberate Constantinople. In actual truth his main motivation was self-glory and the mouth-watering prospect of acquiring some exquisite prizes of war. On the way he would acquire rich cities and portable pieces of art. As soon as both Charles VIII and Louis XII came to the throne, they immediately started a war – as if to say war was the sport of kings. Also, late Medieval Kings were expected to show force – it was an extension of power and image. The political division and disunity in Italy offered an excellent opportunity for military glory and territorial gains for the French. Another reason why Italy was the battle ground was because of an invitation by Ludovico Sforza – the ruler of Milan. Ludovico was ruling on behalf of his young nephew Gian Galezzo, Duke of Milan. Gian was married to Isabella (the grand daughter of the king of Naples). Isabella complained that Ludovico wasn’t letting her and Gian take up their rightful positions as Duke and Duchess of Milan. Naples therefore threatened military action against Milan.
Ludovico was worried his country would not be able to defeat Naples (because of its large population etc), so he looked for a powerful ally. He chose Charles VIII, king of France, and asked him to enter Italy to defend Milan and conquer Naples, causing Italy to be the battleground. There were also dynastic claims. The French descended from the House of Anjou, which had ruled Naples until forced out in 1442. Charles VIII had inherited their claim; and he was bound by honour to pursue it.
Spain, Italy’s main opposition, invaded Italy for other reasons than those of France.
Spain clearly became involved in the wars because of the foreign policy interests of Ferdinand of Aragon (who ruled Spain along with Isabella). At this time, it was not know as Spain, but it was two separate states known as Castille and Aragon. They both had their own interests. Aragon was more interested in the Kingdom of Naples because it was ruled by Ferdinand’s cousin and there had been a continuous rivalry between Aragon and France. Naples had been part of the lands of Aragon until the accession of Ferrante in 1458. Ferdinand was not surprised when Charles VIII invaded Italy, but he was taken aback by the speed at which it was done. Ferdinand therefore set his targets on Italy – mainly Naples – because his grand father had been King there. Aragon had a different story. They became involved with Italy because of trade. They had a large amount of trade occurring on the coasts. If the French became too powerful in Italy, they risked loss of trade and therefore money problems, they therefore felt they had to get involved to stop the French. Dynastic claims to parts of Italy also lead them to fight there.
England had its own reasons for involvement in Italy. Prince Arthur (Henry VII’s son) married Catherine of Aragon. An alliance was therefore formed with Spain. England had joined the Holy league (which was an alliance against France formed in 1495) this meant England and Spain were on the same side, so if Spain fought, England fought.
The Swiss were determined to take Milan to protect their southern boundaries, and to secure their supplies of grain and wine, and therefore lead to even more foreign powers using Rome as a battleground.
In conclusion, there were many reasons why Italy became the battle ground for outside powers between 1494 and 1515. There were some general reasons such as the fact that foreign powers simply ‘could’ invade Italy as it was an easy target and there were the reasons specific to certain countries such as the Aragonese preventing French power in Italy so that their trade would not be disrupted.