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How is it that this age old question of evolution versus creation can turn otherwise friends and colleagues against one another? Much of it has to do with the very fact that we are discussing the matter and how it relates to children. It seems that much of the controversy that is stirred up by this issue revolves around how children will perceive Darwinian “social teachings” or social Darwinism. Will studying evolution corrupt the morals of school-aged children? I began my research pondering the following: Can children that look at website-based material learn the latest material from both a scientific and biblical perspective? Some sub-questions that emerged are Can students learn about both sides in order to form their own opinions? Are creation-based websites dangerous because they make students believe that in order to be good “Christians” it is their duty to turn only towards “the truth” and away from science or anything that might shed doubts upon their beliefs? After researching three main websites and speaking to two of the three website originators I’ve become convinced that teaching children to stop questioning once they’ve been taught the answer is a dangerous position. In no other subject in life do we encourage children to stop their minds from growing once they have attained a certain belief of the way things ought to be. Why is it that we often teach religion without question?
This paper seeks to examine two main themes. The first is a brief history of how creationism became so critical an issue for debate, especially in terms of children. Why are most Christian (evangelists) so particular about what their children learn in school about evolution, even to the extent that some send their children to home school or private institutions? Secondly, I look at three main websites that are dedicated in full or in part to educating young minds about creationism or creation-science. The sites www.kids4truth.com, answersingensis.org, and drdino.com all have similar ideas about what is appropriate for school-aged youth to be learning about creationism. After talking to two of the website creators/maintainers, I was able to try to understand more fully the philosophy behind educating children on the principles of Creationism.
Part I. Literature and Website Review: Creationist Views
Creation ,Creationism, Creation –science: A brief History
Creationism is defined by the American Heritage Dictionary as the “belief in the literal interpretation of the account of the creation of the universe and of all living things related in the Bible.
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Websites for Creation
After doing countless searches on the Internet, it is clear that creationism is everywhere on the World Wide Web. Religiously based websites, ministry websites, home school websites all have numerous articles, links, and evidences for the literal interpretation of the Genesis account of Creation. Most of these websites also have links, pages, and activities specifically for children. The first website I encountered, which spurred further research of this topic was www.Kids4Truth.com. This is a website which is devoted to “Use[ing] multimedia and interactive experiences to effectively communicate divine truth, convince[ing] people of the need to inculcate foundational Bible truth into young hearts and minds, and provide[ing] practical tools for parents, leaders, and local churches to help effectively communicate the most important truths about God”.[iii] (http:// www.kids4truth.com/about.htm). It is a very creative, professional, and eye-catching site. The main attractions on the site are the “dynamations” which are mini videos that describe Creation, the Birth of Christ, as well as tributes to 9.11.01 and other topics. “Creation” is a “very popular presentation that portrays the beauty of God's work in the first seven days”.[iv] They describe creation as the “word we use to refer to the action of God speaking the world and everything in it into existence”.[v] In this question and answer brief, the authors also bring to light that scientist are still unsure as to why “atoms hold together”, rather it is Jesus Christ who holds everything together. This is a very beautiful way to look at faith and Christianity, but it is not scientifically sound. However, the lack of science on the site is at least consistent; the dynamations are animated and are beautiful, but solely poetic, without a trace of science.
Kids 4 Truth also features Christian materials to purchase, information about current missionaries in distant places, and detailed biographies about the website creators. The site is age-appropriate in material when answering questions (i.e. Where did God come from?) and presenting materials about the Bible. It is written soundly and also gently, as not to dismiss a child’s curiosity in these matters. For example, there are no harsh consequences offered to those who do not believe in creation and choose the evolution route, rather evolution is never mentioned as an option. Besides the website materials, Kids 4 Truth has a curriculum which aims to “teach young believers what is correct doctrine, to persuade them why specific doctrines are correct, and to equip them to declare (Titus 2:1; I Peter 3:15) to others historic, authentic Christian truth in a clear, concise, memorable and passionate way”.[vi]
At the request of Bob Roberts, founder of Kids 4 Truth, I looked into www. answersingenesis.org. One of their mission-type statements is, “At Answers in Genesis, we are continually in the battle against the trend [that values evolution], showing clearly that one really can trust the Bible in areas of science, which is why we can trust what it states concerning morality and salvation”.[vii] Statements like this surround this website, and they seem to get people excited both about being Christians and about believing in Creation. This provides the needed motivation to try to target all ages with the truth that exists about creation.
Some of the ways that children are targeted are through lessons and lectures. Ken Ham speaks about “What really happened to the dinosaurs?,” which is “a talk that can be geared for ages 5-12”.[viii] On a different page, kids are asked to draw the actual step-by-step creation that occurred within six days.[ix] However, this seems to not be taken that seriously as stick figures are used for Adam and Eve. The site that was the most thought-provoking was the link to the “Store” page, based at shop.gospelcom.net. On the Answers in Genesis best sellers page, it becomes clear that most people that frequent the site are not only looking for critical information on the topic, but they also want to buy into evangelist thinking. It almost seems reminiscent of a sermon in church complete with call-response tactics. “In Six Days answers this provocative question with fifty informative essays by scientists who say ‘Yes!’”.[x]
There are various curricula here which are skewed versions of normal textbooks. One example is Streams of Civilization, Volume 1, which in 410 pages “makes up for the secular bias found in just about all other [history] textbooks of this kind”.[xi] This book is recommended for freshmen high school students as a “totally comprehensive overview of ancient history (including Creation) through the 1620’s within a Christian perspective”.[xii] The front cover of the book features Native Americans in traditional “Indian costumes” and Columbus consulting the globe and looking out at the ocean. I am amazed that parents would want to buy these materials for their children/students and that they believe they are just as good, if not better, than public school curricula. I wanted to find out more about people’s opinions on this, but the site actually discourages e-mail, apparently because they receive so much of it. It is rare that questions get answered directly; usually questions are answered when new newsletters are produced, so you may have to wait months for an answer.
I then began looking at the Creation Science Evangelism website or www.drdino.com. I was intrigued because of the numerous references to it on other pages. I found that both of the things under the Kids Stuff link were activity booklets about dinosaurs. However, there was a set of books entitled, Science and the Bible which have “a total of 60 scientific demonstrations that illustrate scriptural truths, these two volumes present demonstrations that are easy to do and use ordinary household items”.[xiii] I found it interesting that these so-called experiment books are aiming to prove a point, that scripture is right and science is wrong. It is so strange that someone would regard this as true science, when science never sets out to prove a point. It is misleading to children that are using these materials that in science you not only aim to find out if your hypothesis is correct, but then you try to manipulate the conclusion so everything turns out the way you wanted. I am saddened by the realization that some parents do not want their children to make up their own minds about evolution and creationism – that they would rather protect their children from true learning. On a page soliciting donations from willing contributors the following statement is made, “We will find a way to use most any miscellaneous science stuff that would help us teach about the creation, Noah’s flood, etc.”.[xiv] It seems rather interesting that the supposedly scientific-based site is using whatever they can get their hands on to replicate a “scientific” and “historically accurate” event.
Another section that deals with children on this site is an article entitled, “A Battle Plan – Practical Steps to Fight Evolution”. In this article, parents learn what they can do to combat the “dangerous religious belief”, this being evolution, that schools are teaching children, as well as what their legal rights are as parents and students. Once the authors play the moral card, it is all over. “Also at stake are the morals of our children, because if evolution is true, there are no moral absolutes and only the strongest have a right to survive. If evolution is true, abortion, euthanasia, pornography, genocide, homosexuality, adultery, incest, etc., are all permissible”.[xv] It is certainly interesting how the first place people go in a literalist Biblical interpretation, is that morals are questioned because of evolution. I find it fascinating that so many parents in the generation represented in this website feel that their children are in jeopardy, when many of them clearly experienced evolution education through the public school system, and have lived to respect moral virtues. The Dr. Dino site encourages questions from interested parties, so I placed an e-mail to them and was able to schedule a conversation with Dr. Dino himself – Dr. Kent Hovind – to learn more.
In terms of how kids are finding out about Creationist material on the internet, I looked into different populations of children. Obviously, the only schools that are allowed to teach creationism or creation-science in their curriculum are home schools or private schools. I found that home school curriculum has quite a broad range of website-based literature. Thus, many students are taking their classes on the web, whether these are creation-science subjects or math and history.
According to the National Home Education Research Institute, 1.5 million to 1.9 million students are currently involved in home education; home schooling numbers are growing nationally and internationally.[xvi] Obviously the parents that choose to home school their children must have a strong conviction as this set-up requires complete devotion, lots of money, and time. As one might imagine, many parents make this choice for religious reasons. According to the book, Home Schooling: Parents as Educators, 78 percent of home educators attend weekly religious services, as compared with 30 percent of the nation’s population.[xvii] Also stressed is the importance of religious commitment. 91 percent of home educators cited this as “very important” and only 5 percent and 2 percent chose “somewhat important” and “not very important” respectively.[xviii] The national averages were 40 percent at “very important” and 45 percent at “not very important”.[xix] These figures illustrate that home schooling has been not just a choice for the educationally dedicated but for the religiously loyal as well.
The type of religion that home school educators practice is interesting to note as well. The majority of home school educators were raised in a “mainstream” Protestant denomination (examples are Presbyterian, Episcopalian, and Methodist) but they have recently become members of Evangelical religions and hence practice these religions with their families.[xx] Similarly, the religions known to profess creationism over and instead of evolution are predominantly evangelical groups and other churches that demand strict literal interpretation of the Bible including Assemblies of God, Pentecostal, Southern Baptist, Other Baptists, Adventists, Jehovah’s Witnesses, Christian Scientists, and the Lutheran Church (both Missouri Synod and Wisconsin Synod).[xxi] The same webpage, “The Position of Major Christian Denominations on Creation and Inerrancy” also concedes Molleen Matsumura’s article entitled “What do Christians Really Believe about Evolution?” found in the National Center for Science Education Reports. According to this article, “the majority of Americans professing to be Christians belong to denominations that accept evolution”.[xxii] (Appleman 572). Some of these denominations are the Catholic Church, the Greek Orthodox Church, the Episcopal Church, the United Methodist Church, and many others.[xxiii]
So when we say that those students that are generally influenced by the websites are Christians, we are talking about a much smaller group of Christian that we might previously have imagined. Even though this is true, it is important to clarify that it is not necessary for every church member to agree with all of the church teachings of his or her particular faith. Home school websites that promote curriculum are often linked to religious themes. Henry M. Morris and John C. Whitcomb state in The Genesis Flood that believing in evolution is “essentially an affirmation of atheism, a denial of the possibility of the real Creation.”[xxiv] The website www.homeschoolunitstudies.com also lists Morris as a foremost authority figure on the difference between the theory of evolution and the truth of creation.[xxv] In one lesson plan linking to a site on evolution, books are advertised to children entitled, It Couldn't Just Happen: Fascinating Facts About God's World by Lawrence O. Richards, and Unlocking the Mysteries of Creation by Dennis R. and David Petersen. The book Exploring Creation with General Science, by Jay L. Wile, allows students to perform household experiments that test science. It proclaims that it is “designed to be a student’s first systematic introduction to the sciences. Although it can be used for eighth grade (especially if the student has recently left the public schools), it is typically used best in the seventh grade”.[xxvi] It is interesting how the type and amount of science is carefully controlled on these websites. It is as if parents are saying that it is alright to discover something, as long as someone else has already discovered it.
Websites for Christian Youth
Along with home school curricula sites and links to the main Creation websites, I found several sites specifically for teenagers. The site “Teen Topics: Bible advice for today’s Christian teens” gives teenagers an outlet to ask all their pressing questions regarding everything from popularity to acne to morality and all responses have a biblical basis.[xxvii] However, much of the site is dedicated to Creation issues. This site offers pages entitled, “Crystal Clear Creation” and “Creation Tips”. These sites offer articles with information on how creationism is proven again and again. One article even links well-behaved, moral teens as being the same people that believe in creation and actively “oppose evolution”. 62 percent of church-going teens (in Australia) in one study stated, “I do not believe in evolution. The world was created in seven days as described in the Bible”.[xxviii]
Apparently, these are also the same teens that are moral and virtuous in their ways. In another article on why students should concede creationism, one line reads, “If you attend a Bible-believing Christian school…you probably have no problem accepting creation-science…But if you have never been exposed to the scientific reasons for accepting biblical creation over evolution, you may already have been indoctrinated into thinking that evolution is fact and anything else is nonsense”.[xxix] This makes it seem like a disclaimer on the back of a science textbook is in order to help save innocent Christian students from being bombarded with the erroneous beliefs that are evolution.
Part II: A Case Study
Interview 1: Bob Roberts
Bob Roberts is the Director of Children’s Ministries at Tri-City Ministries in Independence, Missouri and the founder of Kid 4 Truth. He and I corresponded through several e-mails. We spoke first about the logistics of his website. Kids 4 Truth receives 1,000,000 hits per month, which they estimate equates to 100,000 “unique visitors per month”.[xxx] He surmises that 50,000 kids per month regularly visit his site, and he’s told verbally by “children fairly regularly” that they often go to the site.[xxxi] Obviously, his message is getting out there. In terms of talking with children about evolution versus creationism, he believes that its “great”; “the topic of origins lends itself to discussing answers to the greatest questions ever asked”.[xxxii] He believes that public schools should present both evolutionist and creationist materials in one textbook. He also feels that it is not necessary to send kids to a private or home school to receive proper education but that family support is crucial no matter what environment in which kids learn.[xxxiii]
I was interested in not only what he teaches to kids, but also about his personal motivations for involvement. First, Bob says he was inspired to begin the site when he saw an “evolution-tainted film about T-REX at an IMAX theater. It was atrocious in regards to its science”.[xxxiv] He wanted a way to counter these beliefs and “creatively show a biblical worldview in respect to origins” He intrigued me by his position on biblical literalism and what he calls a “bombastic approach”.[xxxv] He believes that certain websites waste a lot of time “belittling” people’s views, instead of engaging in “gracious” dialogue. He states, “We all have the same evidence, but not all of us interpret that evidence through the same paradigm”.[xxxvi]
On the subject of origins, he believes that with a Darwinian worldview, all one is capable of thinking is “you are the reason you are here”. This leads to a “joyless life”, full of “worshipping self”. He explained that reality t.v. shows, drug and alcohol use, and extreme violence and sex are all desperate cries to seek fulfillment. He believes that our society “clings to a Darwinian worldview – a view that is essentially without God as God but a view that man is God”.[xxxvii] He then quoted several biblical passages including Col 1:16-17, “For by him were all things created, that are in heaven, and that are in earth, visible and invisible, whether they be thrones, or dominions, or principalities, or powers: all things were created by him, and for him: and he is before all things, and by him all things consist”.[xxxviii]
At this point I found myself truly wanting to believe the Creation viewpoint. Even though I am a Christian (a Catholic to be exact), I’ve never doubted that evolution has taken place and still takes place. As an Anthropology major, I’ve seen and felt skulls of different early human ancestors and the evidence seems conclusive. As a Catholic, I subscribe to the Church viewpoint that evolution and religion can co-exist. I asked Bob if he, too, believed this to be possible. His answer is that he believes that the “Scriptures make the best sense to the human mind out of what we can objectively observe happening in the society around us, and even what has happened in the past. In human terms, this is the greatest reason why I believe in the biblical account of Creation, because it is part of the book that makes what I can observe understandable and reasonable”.[xxxix] Bob continued about his views on science, “I have never encountered (and I’ve done a fair bit of study!) any piece of archaeological data that ultimately contradicts the Biblical account of Creation”.[xl] Even still, Bob says that he does not “argue with evolutionists based on evidence”.[xli] He believes that this is a moot point since two people can look at the same data and come up with different conclusions. Instead, Bob argues that evolutions will ultimately end up being unhappy and creationists will be fulfilled. Bob sums up his Creationist beliefs as being based on the feeling he gets from them. “I believe the Scriptures because they make sense; they cause me to be ever-fascinated, ever-captivated, and truly happy”.[xlii]
Bob Roberts encouraged me to see more than one motivation to believe that creation is the only way to go on the debate. Prior to this, I always thought the biblical literalists were too afraid to believe in evolution because if they could not hold on to the literal word of God, there would be nothing else to hold on to. Now, I see that while this still may be the case, many people like Bob are hoping to save children years of heartache and searching in the “wrong” places to find answers to questions that could be solved through using the bible as a resource. It is one way to help protect children from some of the harsh realities of our world. Bob’s story of how he was raised a Christian, but how he had to rediscover it, parallels some of the stories in the home educator model. I think it is interesting that in this instance, people that became more heavily involved in literal interpretation of faith are inspired to work with children.
The last question Bob posed to me was “Will truth define your facts, or will facts define your truth?”[xliii] And after this, he concluded that “Evolution/ Darwinism is a religion too”[xliv] This reminded me that even though I was beginning to see the Creation viewpoint, it is still important to consider that many of their arguments consider science to be mere opinion, possible to discard due to mere dislike.
Interview2: Dr. Kent Hovind (a.k.a. Dr. Dino)
After speaking with Mr. Roberts, I expected something similar from the seemingly educated Dr. Hovind. However, my conversation with him proved to be very different. In subject matter, some of the thoughts of each party were similar, but in terms of presentation, Bob was much more well-versed and articulate than Dr. Hovind, who at one point said that a God that allowed evolution would have to be “retarded”.[xlv]
One of the view points that matched was the fact that evolution/Darwinism is a religion. Dr. Hovind speaks of Creationism as Creation and Evolution as Evolutionism, in order to “clarify” things. He believes that creation is the truth, and evolutionism is the belief in false matters, so it should have the ism. Because evolution is an accepted form of “lies”, our tax dollars are now at work to educate our children on principles that are not facts. He believes that it would be fine to have evolution in the public schools, if “they [the evolutionists] could remove all the lies”.[xlvi] Dr. Hovind, however, believes that no one will be able to do this without removing the religion of evolutionism altogether from the schools.
In terms of religion and science being able to co-exist in the matter, Dr. Hovind states four reasons why he believes this cannot happen. First, he believes that any God that would make as many “mistakes” as evolution has made would be a “dumb” or “retarded” God.[xlvii] Second, he believes that evolution is “blind chance” and that this counters what God wanted for us in His plan.[xlviii] Third, he believes that only a “cruel God” would allow for evolution because “evolution is a cruel process where only the strong survive”.[xlix] Due to this, we would not want to worship this God then. Fourth, Dr. Hovind believes that science ought to be able to show “empirical data” which proves the theory. He says that evolution has “no evidence” and has “never been proven right”. “It is not science, but religion”.[l]
So how does Dr. “Dino” Hovind describe creation to children? He uses this metaphor. If you were to walk into a forest and see a building, you would not assume that it spontaneously constructed itself; it must have been put together by a builder. The same is apparently true with creation. We look around and see creation, so the Creator must be at the center of all of this, and whether the creator is “Buddha, Allah, or Jehovah” is irrelevant, says Hovind.[li] Dr. Hovind believes that his ministry fills one of the biggest needs that exists. So many people believe in evolution because it is easier to not have a God. Evolution “gives people a false hope. They can explain the world without a creator”. The Bible “claims to be perfect”, so it’s “ridiculous” to not take it literally.[lii] My interview with Dr. Hovind was enlightening in the fact that I learned a bit more about what a different Creation proponent had to say about the faith behind it. The bottom line for Hovind is that “children ought to learn to truth”.[liii] When he walked into museums and saw an evolution-tainted disaster, luring kids in with science only to teach evolution, he knew he was feeling his calling to fill the greatest need out there.
After reading about first hand and speaking with some leading creationists, I feel that there are several reasons why there is so much information about it for kids on the internet. First, information in general is growing on the internet, especially directed at children since they are so much more capable of absorbing information than adults are. However, this is also the scary part. If most adults did not have creation-training in school, then they grew up being able to understand both sides of the story if they later wanted to learn them. The children that are absorbing this information these days will be so full with tales of Creation and knowledge that “it’s wrong” to believe in evolution, that they will limit their scientific inquiry.
This leads into my next point which is that it seems that adults enjoy using the children’s arena as an outlet to either learn more about creation themselves or to criticize things they did not have in their lives. Several adults, it seems, have since “buckled down” as they became adults, and it seems they are more attracted to strict religions where a literal interpretation of the Bible is required. Perhaps adults feel if they guide their children in this way, they will make fewer mistakes, feel better about themselves, and become positive role models.
Even though so many of the sites today come from a creation-science foundation, it seems that they present their science in a “child-like” way. Even though children want lessons that are fun, they do not want things to be “dumbed down” to them. Looking at cartoon images and stick-figures will hardly compare to pictures of embryos in science textbooks (no matter if these pictures are inaccurate or not). Making the designs creative and unique may help encourage kids to study creation, but when these images look so fake, how can kids believe that this is true science or an accurate history?
The bottom line is that the internet is still a place to be wary. The credentials of those running the websites may be misleading in terms of their actual reasoning ability. Not all creationist websites are alike, and so even if you’re teaching your children this view, they may become confused in the process. Creation “curriculum” is not necessarily correct, just as creation-science is not necessarily fact or evidence. It is wise to consult the textbooks that children are learning from to encourage them to conduct their own research, but it is not safe to say that all “research” sites are created equal. What would happen if people continue to treat religion as fact in terms of creation? More people will become disheartened to anything to do with science and evolution, only to favor their own opinions on the matter. More walls will be put up between communities, with less dialogue and more confusion among groups.
[i] American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 4th. ed. online. “Creationism,” [online], <http://dictionary.reference.com/search?q=creationism > (5 February 2003).
[ii] Ronald L. Numbers, ed., Creationism in Twentieth-Century America (New York: Garland Publishing, Inc., 1995), vol. 9, Early Creationist Journals, viii.
[iii] Bob Roberts and Marie Tabler, Kids 4 Truth: About Us, 2001, [online] <http:// www.kids4truth.com/about.htm> (5 February 2003).
[iv] Ibid., Kids 4 Truth: Just Neat Stuff, 2001, [online] <http://www.kids4truth.com/ creation.htm> (5 February 2003).
[v] Ibid., Kids 4 Truth: Questions, 2001, [online] <http://www.kids4truth.com/ Questions/question8.htm> (5 February 2003).
[vi] Bob R. Roberts, Kids 4 Truth: Online Philosophy, 2001, [online] <http://www. k4t.com/philosophy.htm> (5 February 2003).
[vii] Answers in Genesis: Bruce Willis and the Gallup Poll – an alarming trend, 2003, [online] <http://answersingenesis.org/docs2/4269news4-6-2000.asp> (5 February 2003).
[viii] Ibid., About Answers in Genesis – President Ken Ham, 2003, [online] < www. answersingenesis.org/home/area/about/ham.asp> (5 February 2003).
[ix] Ibid., How to draw the six days of Creation for kids – Part II, 2003, [online] <http://www.answersingenesis.org/docs2002/oh20020301_112.asp> (5 February 2003).
[x] Ibid., AIG Bestsellers, 2003, [online] < http://shop.gospelcom.net/cgi-bin/AIGUS.storefront/3e4257b9001a52512719ac14100105b3/Catalog/BestSellers> (5 February 2003).
[xi] Ibid., Streams of Civilization, 2003, [online] < http://shop.gospelcom.net/cgi-bin/AIGUS.storefront/en/product/10-1-033> (5 February 2003).
[xiii] Kent Hovind, Creation Science Evangelism – “Science and the Bible, Volumes 1 &2”, [online] < http:/ /www. drdino.com/cse.asp? pg=products&specific=jnqnloj8> (5 February 2003).
[xiv] Ibid., Creation Science Evangelism – Science Contributions [online] <http://www.drdino.com/cse.asppg=news&specific=70> (5 February 2003).
[xv] Ibid., Creation Science Evangelism – A Battle Plan, Practical Steps to Fight Evolution, [online] <http://www.drdino.com/cse.asp?pg=articles&specific=6> (5 February 2003).
[xvi] Brian D. Ray, National Home Education Research Institute, 2002, [online] < http://www.nheri.org/content.php?menu =1006&pageid=32> (5 February 2003).
[xvii] Maralee Mayberry and others, eds., Home Schooling: Parents as Educators (Thousand Oaks, California: Corwin Press, Inc., 1995), 35.
[xxi] Coalition for Excellence in Science and Math Education, “The Position of Major Christian Denominations on Creation and Inerrancy,” 2 February 2003, [online] <http://www.cesame-nm.org/Viewpoint/ contributions/bible/position.html> (5 February 2003).
[xxii] Molleen Matsumura, “What Do Christians Really Believe about Evolution?” The National Center for Science Education Reports 18 (March-April 1998) contained in Philip Appleman, ed., Darwin, 3rd ed. (New York: W.W. Norton and Company, Inc., 2001), 572.
[xxiii] Coalition for Excellence…(5 February 2003).
[xxiv] John C. Whitcomb and Henry M. Morris, The Genesis Flood: The Biblical Record and Its Scientific Implications (Philadelphia: The Presbyterian and Reformed Publishing Company, 1961), 238.
[xxv] Heart of Wisdom, “Home school curriculum and resources for Christians from Heart of Wisdom”, 2002, [online] <www.homeschoolunitstudies.com> (5 February 2003).
[xxvi] Apologia Educational Ministries, “Exploring Creation with General Science,” 25 July 2002, [online] <http://www.highschoolscience.com/books/ ecgs /index.html> (5 February 2003).
[xxvii] Creation Tips: Creation-Evolution info for Chritians. “Teen Topics: Bible advice for today’s Christian teens,” [online] < http://www.users.bigpond.com/rdoolan/teentopix.html> (5 February 2003).
[xxviii] Ibid., “Teen Topics: Teens who go to Church have less trouble,” [online] <http://www.users.bigpond.com/rdoolan/church.html> (5 February 2003).
[xxix] Ibid., “Teen Topics: Should Christian Teens believe Creation Science?,” [online] < http://www.users.bigpond.com/rdoolan/ creationscience.html> (5 February 2003).
[xxx] Bob R. Roberts, interview by author, 31 January 2003, Santa Clara, California, electronic mail.
[xxxii] Ibid., 5 February 2003.
[xxxiv] Ibid., 31 January 2003.
[xxxv] Ibid., 5 February 2003.
[xlv] Dr. Kent Hovind, interview by author, 5 February 2003, Santa Clara, California, telephone.