Gender Segregation and Discrimination in CTE

Gender Segregation and Discrimination in CTE

Length: 2005 words (5.7 double-spaced pages)

Rating: Excellent

Open Document

Essay Preview

More ↓
Gender Segregation and Discrimination in CTE


The Traditional Reality

The CTE system before Title IX has been characterized as traditionally dominated by gender segregation and discrimination (National Coalition for Women and Girls in Education 2002). In many cases, females were denied entry into training programs for higher-wage, traditionally male, industry and technical occupations. Gender stereotyping in guidance and counseling practices and materials, bias in teacher practices, and harassment by other students discouraged nontraditional enrollment by females and in practice restricted CTE opportunities for females to lower-wage, traditionally female, health and cosmetology occupations. In short, systematic practices and expectations steered females into home economics and away from shop or auto mechanics. In the long run, the most damaging consequence of such gender bias was to limit females' access to the benefits of CTE—the living wage that provides females the same economic self-sufficiency that males have long enjoyed.

The Continuing Reality

Unfortunately, CTE is still characterized by pervasive gender segregation and discrimination (National Women's Law Center 2002). Thirty years later, there are still striking gender disparities in guidance and counseling practices, in CTE program enrollment, in the level and quality of classes available in traditionally male and traditionally female CTE programs, and in the wages earned by female and male CTE graduates. An interesting comparison of two surveys (reported in Gloeckner and Knowlton 1995-96), one in Montana in 1980 and another in Virginia in 1995, illustrates a large, enduring gender gap in a critical CTE program area:

. In Montana in 1980, females accounted for half of enrollment in only one high school
technical education course—51 percent of Graphic Arts students were female. Female
enrollment was less than 10 percent in all other high school technical education
courses.

. In Virginia in 1995, only one high school technical education course, Communications
Technology, had about 50 percent female enrollment. In the 32 remaining high school
technical education courses, female enrollment was less than 15 percent in 27 course
and less than 10 percent in 17 courses.

. In 1995, Virginia students explained gender differences in terms that could be
considered classic for CTE. Females and males both perceived technology education
classes as "guy" classes; females perceived technology education classrooms are
dirty, hence unfeminine.

How to Cite this Page

MLA Citation:
"Gender Segregation and Discrimination in CTE." 123HelpMe.com. 26 Apr 2019
    <https://www.123helpme.com/view.asp?id=35995>.

Need Writing Help?

Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.

Check your paper »

Gender Theory And Gender Segregation Theory Essay

- is developing in the direction of the formation of equal rights culture, regardless of social, economic, or other distinctions. The theories analysed in the chapter below glance at the social role theory, human capital theory, discrimination theory and gender segregation theory as these theories are held to explain a conceivable reasons for gender imbalance and the current division of labour among sexes. 2.3 Gender Theories and related explanations 2.3.1 Social Role Theory The behaviour of men and women can be shaped as a child by socialisation into gender roles....   [tags: Gender, Gender role, Discrimination, Employment]

Research Papers
1057 words (3 pages)

Gender Discrimination At The Workplace Essays

- Gender Discrimination in the Workforce Although gender roles have changed over time, a certain label of behaviors and tasks which are designated for men and women specifically still exist today. Some of the labels of behavior that can be found today are the expectations that society has for both women and men. People still feel that women are the ones who should be taking care of everything at home, such as cooking, cleaning, and taking care of the kids, while the husband goes to work. Although women have more power in the workforce, and more men can be found taking over the role by being at their homes, there are still social expectations that displays what it means to be male or female.”...   [tags: Gender, Discrimination, Sexism, Gender role]

Research Papers
1359 words (3.9 pages)

Essay on Racial Segregation And Gender Segregation

- Residential Segregation Race is an ambiguous concept possessed by individuals, and according to sociologists Michael Omi and Howard Winant, it is socially constructed. Race divides people into categories which causes needless cultural and social tensions. The concept of race also causes inclusion, exclusion, and segregation in the U.S. Both inclusion and exclusion tie together to create the overall process of segregation; one notion cannot occur without resulting in the others. Segregation is a form of separation in terms of race that includes the processes of inclusion and exclusion....   [tags: Racial segregation, Racism, Crime, Urban decay]

Research Papers
863 words (2.5 pages)

Gender Discrimination And Gender Equality Essay

- more and more people trying to incorporate gender equality in all areas of their operations even if some do it to a small extent. Though this effort is much appreciated, more needs to be done to ensure that gender equality is fully gained in all countries of the world. Gender based discrimination is commonplace in the corporate world as very few women hold top executive positions in big companies. Fewer women hold executive offices in multinationals and big companies compared to their male counterparts....   [tags: Gender, Discrimination, Egalitarianism, Equality]

Research Papers
1032 words (2.9 pages)

Gender Equality And Gender Discrimination Essay

- Currently, there is still inequality in pay for men and women during the same job which is an act of gender discrimination in the workplace. Gender discrimination is defined as prejudice or discrimination based on an individual’s gender. Gender equality is attained when individuals are able to access and enjoy equal rewards and opportunities irrespective of their gender. Various countries have made substantial progress concerning gender equality in recent periods. Conversely, women still endure less salary earnings in comparison to men, moreover, women are less likely to advance their careers as far as men are able to....   [tags: Gender, Discrimination, Sexism, Feminism]

Research Papers
1191 words (3.4 pages)

Discrimination, Gender, And Gender Roles Essay

- Discrimination has been around for a long time and will continue to exist if we insist on labeling and boxing individuals in categories that are meant to separate instead of unite. Discrimination is often times associated with race, religion and appearance. However, one of the biggest subjects discussed when referring to discrimination is gender roles. We live in a world where humans are social beings more than anything else. We have been conditioned to believe that everyone living in society has to abide by the imposed social construct....   [tags: Gender, Discrimination, Gender role, Woman]

Research Papers
756 words (2.2 pages)

Gender Discrimination And Its Effects On Women Essay

- Specific Aims Although our nation is becoming increasingly more progressive, gender discrimination still exists for many women. The specific aim of this experiment is to measure the ability of women to complete a focus and attention task after having been questioned about stereotype threat, gender discrimination, disadvantage and privilege. Guided by previous research, this proposed experiment hypothesizes that there will be a significant difference in attention task scores for female participants in male dominated areas of study and attention task scores for female participants in female dominated areas of study....   [tags: Gender, Stereotype, Discrimination, Stereotypes]

Research Papers
1543 words (4.4 pages)

System of Age and Gender Discrimination Essay

- Our society is facing a serious problem that is the age discrimination between women and men. In 1939 to 1979 white women made less than 60 % as much as white men. The 40% gape difference decreased these days, but there is still a wage gap between men and women. There are many claims behind the reason of wage discrimination. George F. Will (2000)” Lies, Damned lies and …..” claims that the main cause of wage gap is omen’s decision to establish a family, so that force them to make comprise for raising their children and that leads them to work in flexible jobs with flexible ours that permit them to enter the fast track.....   [tags: Age Discrimination, Discrimination, gender, ]

Free Essays
443 words (1.3 pages)

Gender Discrimination Throughout The Years Essays

- You could say we had gender discrimination throughout the years, but more recently time have changed. Just this last, decade American women are making an impact in becoming CEOs of fortune 500 companies. On the contrary Australia’s average earning of women is 16.2% lower than men, also when women hit the age 35 their pay decreases while men continues to increase (Australia). Even before, men used to be the “top dog,” but now high-power women are given opportunities for the chance to even become president....   [tags: Gender, Discrimination]

Research Papers
983 words (2.8 pages)

Essay about Gender Discrimination in the Workplace

- It is not up for debate whether women are discriminated against in the workplace, it is evident in census data; in 2013, among full-time, year-round workers, women were paid 78 percent of what men were paid. It is said that the organizations that are pro-equal pay, including some unions, support the idea that the government should set wages for all jobs. To the contrary, the organizations that are proponents of equal pay are not for job wages being set by the government-they wish to have the discrimination taken out of pay scales from within the company....   [tags: Sex Discrimination and Gender Discrimination]

Research Papers
2837 words (8.1 pages)

Related Searches

Remote locations away from the core of the school building;
sexist, dehumanizing comments from male students; and the image of technology
education classes as academic dumping grounds were all cited by female students as
barriers to enrollment.

Other accounts portray similar situations in other areas of CTE and in other places. For example, the numbers of female technology education students, teachers, and teacher educators remain disproportionately low in British Columbia; the disproportion is explained by continued recruiting inequities, a history of gendering in the field, and resistance to gender-specific interventions (Braundy et al. 2000). In computer-related courses, males continue to dominate in such areas as graphic arts and computer-aided design, whereas females enroll disproportionately in clerical and data-entry courses; females also lag behind males in taking the advanced placement computer science exam and in recreational and elective use of computers in school (Weinman and Haag 1999). University undergraduate graduate family and consumer sciences programs as a whole remain predominantly female (Firebaugh and Miller 2000). A number of states report continuing, pronounced gender imbalances, reflecting traditional occupational gendering, in secondary or adult CTE programs (Gender Equity in New Jersey 1996; Hargroder 1998; Silverman 1999; South Carolina Occupational Education 1995):

. Numerous technology education programs remain heavily male dominated—engineering
technology, precision production trades, automotive technology, mechanics and
repairers, and computer information sciences, for example. Construction trades
typically still have the lowest female enrollments.
. Agriculture is still a male-dominated program area.
. Secondary business and health occupations remain female dominated.
. Secondary home economics remains heavily female dominated.

A Larger Reality

Furthermore, disparities between the genders are not confined to CTE in the United States. In the U.S., females continue to outperform males in reading and writing and males continue to outperform females in math and science in elementary and secondary grades; enrollment in postsecondary undergraduate and graduate degree programs remains fairly gender traditional; and females are still underrepresented in professional degree programs (Bae et al. 2000). And in at least some other cultures and nations, females and males tend to prepare for and enter occupations in very gender-traditional patterns. In Australia, females are still clustered in a relatively narrow range of vocational education and training programs and a small set of lower-paid occupations in health and community services, for example (Australian National Training Authority 1996). A study comparing American and Finnish students (Burge and Stenström 1995) found that in both nations, females typically chose jobs that involved service and caring and the realm of human life, whereas males most likely chose branches of industry that involved the production of goods. A study of 10 countries (Argentina, India, Mexico, Republic of Korea, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Turkey, United Arab Emirates, and Zambia) found that enduring social and cultural attitudes toward women's role create a gap between policy and practice in providing equal opportunity and access for females through vocational guidance (Miller and Vetter 1996).

Progress toward Gender Equity in CTE

Nevertheless, there is evidence that some change has occurred in access to CTE programs. For example, females received 85% of all bachelor's degrees in family and consumer sciences (from the 10 postsecondary institutions with the highest enrollment), but some specific programs attract a more gender-balanced mix of students (Firebaugh and Miller 2000):

. Programs that provide career options associated with business and industry, such as
hospitality or food service systems management
. Programs with a strong biological base leading to professional fields like medicine (
e.g., a Human Biology, Health, and Society program)
. Newly developed programs that lead to professional fields like law (e.g., policy
analysis and management)

Similarly, there is a glimmer of change even in the comparison of technology education in Montana in 1980 and in Virginia in 1995 (Gloeckner and Knowlton 1995-96). Females accounted for less than 10 percent of 1980 Montana enrollments in every course except one; 15 years later in Virginia, females enrollments were less than 10 percent in only 17 of 32 courses.

Likewise, some individual state reports show a certain amount of movement toward gender balance in CTE enrollments. Between 1992 and 1995, enrollment in New Jersey secondary occupational programs became more gender balanced in business management/administrative services, computer/information sciences, marketing operations/distribution, and vocational home economics; enrollments in adult programs became more gender-balanced in business management/administrative services, computer/information sciences, health professions/related sciences, and marketing operations/distribution (Gender Equity in New Jersey 1996). In Louisiana, gender-nontraditional enrollment had risen somewhat from 24.4 percent of all enrollments in 1990-91 to 26.5 percent in 1995-96; females accounted for 14.7 percent of all 1996-97 enrollments in technology education, the highest rate among the 6 program years reported but still below the desired 25 percent rate to achieve gender balance (Hargroder 1998).

Conclusion: An Open Question

So, has there been an increase in equitable access to CTE programs and the benefits they can provide? It is difficult to draw firm conclusions, one way or another, from the literature. On the one hand, there is persuasive evidence that gender bias, gender segregation, and gender discrimination still exist and still have a baneful effect on access. For example, four predominantly female vocational high schools in one city offered an average of 1.75 advanced placement courses per school; for 11 predominantly male schools in the same city, the average was 3.89 courses (NCWGE 2002). And women in nontraditional jobs constituted only 12 percent of working females, in spite of the great disparities between nontraditional and traditional jobs for females (ibid.). However, to say that bias, segregation, and discrimination exist is one thing; to say whether those are on the increase or on the decrease is quite different. Some data indicate, for example, that there is movement toward greater gender balance in some CTE program enrollments, hence more equitable access to CTE programs. However, those data are partial, reflecting program enrollments in only certain states and may not reflect the situation in other states.

Unfortunately, comprehensive nationwide data typically do not specifically address CTE programs and effects (e.g., Bae et al. 2000). For example, in 1970, the median annual earnings of female high school graduates were only 50 percent of males' earnings; those of female bachelor's degree holders, only 57 percent of males' earnings; by 1997, those disparities had been reduced to 64 percent and 78 percent, respectively, at the two levels. So although disparities still exist, earnings appear to be less unequal than formerly--but the data presented allow conclusions only on the effects of education in general, not on the effects of CTE in particular.

Similarly, discussions about how to achieve more equitable access typically appear very logical; on the face of it, it makes sense to call for full implementation of Title IX requirements for issuing federal programs or for the return to the previous Perkins Act requirement and funding for full-time state sex equity coordinators (NCWGE 2002; NWLC 2002). On the other hand, it could be said that previous legislative and regulatory requirements have fallen far short of producing genuinely equitable access, across the board, to CTE programs and to the benefits they can provide. All in all, it appears that we can say this: In reality, access to CTE and to its benefits is not perfectly equitable-but it is apparently better than it used to be; efforts to improve access by eliminating gender bias, segregation, and discrimination have not been completely effective-but they have presumably had some effect. Perhaps the reality is that gender bias, segregation, and discrimination will always be a danger in CTE; efforts to combat and eliminate them will always be needed; attention to equal access for all will always be in order.

References

Australian National Training Authority. National Women's Vocational Education and Training Strategy. Brisbane: ANTA, 1996. (ED 420 775)

Bae, Y.; Choy, S.; Geddes, C.; Sable, J.; and Snyder, T. Trends in Educational Equity of Girls and Women. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Department of Education, 2000. (ED 440 210)

Braundy, M.; O'Riley, P.; Petrina, S.; Dalley, S.; and Paxton, A. "Missing XX Chromosomes and Gender In/equity in Design and Technology Education? The Case of British Columbia." Journal of Industrial Teacher Education 37, no. 3 (Spring 2000): 54-92.

Burge, P. L., and Stenström, M.-L. "Comparison of American and Finnish Gender-Linked Vocational Program Choices." International Journal of Vocational Education and Training 3, no. 1 (Spring 1995): 7-24.

Firebaugh, F. M., and Miller, J. R. "Diversity and Globalization: Challenges, Opportunities, and Promises." Journal of Family and Consumer Sciences 92, no. 1 (2000): 26-36.

Gender Equity in New Jersey: Secondary and Adult Enrollment in Vocational Education Programs and Single Parent and Equity Projects. Upper Montclair, NJ: Career Equity Assistance Center for Research and Evaluation, Montclair State University, 1996. (ED 404 459)

Gloeckner, G. W., and Knowlton, L. K. "Females in Technology Education: The Obligation of a Democratic Society." Technology Teacher 55, no. 4 (December 1995-January 1996): 47-49.

Hargroder, M. Louisiana's Achievements for Gender Equity in Vocational Education: Executive Summary 1996-97. Lafayette: University of Southwestern Louisiana, 1998. (ED 435 859)

Miller, J. V., and Vetter, L. Vocational Guidance for Equal Access and Opportunity for Girls and Women in Technical and Vocational Education. Paris, France: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, 1996. (ED 398 457)

National Coalition for Women and Girls in Education. Title IX at 30: Report Card on Gender Equity. Washington, DC: NCWGE, 2002. http://www.ncwge.org/pubs.htm

National Women's Law Center. Title IX and Equal Opportunity in Vocational and Technical Education: A Promise Still Owed to the Nation's Young Women. Washington, DC: NWLC, 2002. http://www.nwlc.org/pdf/TitleIXCareerEducationReport.pdf

Silverman, S. Gender Equity and School-to-Career: A Guide to Strengthening the Links to Nontraditional Careers. Hartford: Connecticut Women's Education and Legal Fund, 1999. (ED 439 291)

South Carolina Occupational Education Performance Report for Fiscal Year: 1994-95. Columbia: Office of Occupational Education, South Carolina Department of Education, 1995. (ED 391 951)

Weinman, J., and Haag, P. "Gender Equity in Cyberspace." Educational Leadership 56, no. 5 (February 1999): 44-49.
Return to 123HelpMe.com