Defining One Country, Two System

Defining One Country, Two System

Length: 1758 words (5 double-spaced pages)

Rating: Excellent

Open Document

Essay Preview

More ↓
Defining One Country, Two System


Hong Kong is a very special city. It has a very interesting history. In 1842, Hong Kong Island of Hong Kong was ceded by China to Great Britain. In 1860, Kowloon Peninsula of Hong Kong was ceded to England. In 1898, the rest of Hong Kong, the New Territories and 235 outlying islands were leased to England for 99 years. In the early 1980’s, the British and Chinese government began to have negotiations about Hong Kong’s future since the lease would expire on July 1st, 1997. The leader of China, Deng XiaoPing, introduced the “One Country, Two System”. The “One Country, Two System” was intended by China to give Hong Kong’s citizen a promise that communism wouldn’t prevail over capitalism in Hong Kong. This way, China would gain trusts from Hong Kong’s citizens that the conditions would be the same when the Great Britain returned the sovereignty of Hong Kong back to China. British and Chinese representatives signed the British-Sino Joint Declaration in 1984, authorizing the transition of Hong Kong’s sovereignty in the midnight of July 1st, 1997. Hong Kong citizens were excited that Hong Kong would finally return to its motherland. China wanted to show the world that the “One Country, Two System” would be unique and successful so that China could attract Macau and Taiwan to return to China.

In the early 1990’s, the Basic Law was published in order to make the practice of “One Country, Two System” a legal procedure. In the Basic Law, it stated that Hong Kong would become an inalienable part of the People’s Republic of China (1). China would authorize Hong Kong to practice a high degree of autonomy, and enjoy executive, legislative, and independent judicial power (2). The executive authorities and legislative of Hong Kong shall be composed of permanent residents of Hong Kong (3). Hong Kong residents would have their rights and freedoms (4). The socialist system and policies wouldn’t be practiced in Hong Kong, and the previous capitalist system and way of life would remain unchanged for 50 years (5). Hong Kong would protect the right of private ownership of property in accordance with law (6). The laws previously enforced in Hong Kong, the common law, rules of equity, ordinances, subordinate legislation and customary laws, would be maintained (8).

How to Cite this Page

MLA Citation:
"Defining One Country, Two System." 123HelpMe.com. 15 Dec 2019
    <https://www.123helpme.com/view.asp?id=35397>.

Need Writing Help?

Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.

Check your paper »

Essay about Apartheid and The Future of South Africa in Cry, The Beloved Country

- Arthur, Napoleon, and Msimangu, all characters from Alan Paton’s book, Cry, The Beloved Country, are used to share Paton’s points of view on the future of South Africa and the apartheid. Paton uses these characters to represent specific views; Arthur expresses clearly that the apartheid isn’t the right way to progress as a country, Napoleon exemplifies how Paton thinks people should take the anti-apartheid effort, and Msimangu explicitly expresses Paton’s ideas of an ideal leader. Arthur Jarvis was the son of James Jarvis, an activist for the causes he believed in, and very well liked in the community....   [tags: Cry, The Beloved Country Essays]

Research Papers
1036 words (3 pages)

Reward Programs : Reward System Essay

- Reward system Reward system policy often view from the organization’s perspective where the economic needs of the firms take precedence over the individual. Under this outline, costly reward system and limited reward system will be wasted or misapplied because they are not valued by employees. Organization will see that what is important is not whether a reward system program look great on the paper or considered a state of the art reward program, but is going to be measure by or not the employees wanted the reward and they are willing to work toward a desired result to receive it....   [tags: Globalization, Culture, Reward system]

Research Papers
729 words (2.1 pages)

Hajj and Saudi Arabia Essay

- Saudi Arabia may be well known for its oil reserves and precarious geographic location, but the Islamic faith defines the country far more than any other quality. While it may appear to be an absolute monarchy, the country runs as near to a theocracy as it can in the modern world. The real Saudi Arabian ruler is Allah. This is evidenced in every aspect of Saudi Arabian life, even down to their tourism industry. While other countries rely on stunning natural views, impressive shopping districts, or relaxing beaches, Saudi Arabia has proven itself the pinnacle of religious tourism....   [tags: theocracies, Islam defining a country]

Research Papers
1240 words (3.5 pages)

The Defining Moments Of Policing Essay

- There have been many moments in history that have come to define policing today. These moments have been recorded into some of the most well know court cases. Some of these moments have even made it to the Supreme Court. Some of the most important defining moments in policing history would be the addressing of terrorism. Another would be national discrimination commissions, and the six core beliefs as well. Also the laws put into place to control policing and the decision against racial profiling are some important moments that have helped to define policing....   [tags: Police, Law enforcement agency, Constable]

Research Papers
1389 words (4 pages)

Essay The Task Of Defining Citizenship

- The task of defining citizenship is a difficult endeavor which takes much thought and careful examination in order to make sense of what constitutes the ideals of citizenship. Citizens are individuals who have a legal status within the state. Unfortunately it would take an amendment actually the repealing of an amendment to end birthright citizenships. To do that will take years, if not decades. So it can be done, but it won 't fix the short term problem. What the US needs to do is to secure borders to stop mothers from coming into another country illegally and having their baby because as soonest they do they become American citizen and they cannot be denied any government benefits....   [tags: Immigration to the United States, United States]

Research Papers
888 words (2.5 pages)

The Election System Of The United States Essay

- I. Introduction The United States of America was built on the fundamental principles of democracy. Democracy is government by the people for the people. The people have opinions about government that are expressed mainly through voting. It is common knowledge that anyone of age can choose to vote. **** There are many issues in the election system of the United States. Some issues include, the absence of a defined right to vote in the Constitution, the American ballots, the Electoral College, the cost of being a politician, and the electronic voting systems in use today....   [tags: Voting system, Elections, United States, Election]

Research Papers
963 words (2.8 pages)

Exploring and Defining Racism Essay

- Exploring and Defining Racism Works Cited Missing To define racism it is important to firstly define race. Race is defined as "a group characterized by closeness of common descent and usually also by some shared physical distinctiveness, such as colour of skin" (source: Modern Thought - Bullock and Stallybrass). Racism can be defined as "a belief or doctrine that inherent differences among the various human races determine cultural or individual achievement, usually involving the idea that one's own race is superior and has the right to rule others" In the...   [tags: Papers]

Research Papers
3410 words (9.7 pages)

Defining Power and Politics Essay example

- Defining Power and Politics Since man began to talk politics was born, politics is the social study and interaction with another being. Politics is the process and method of gaining or maintaining support for public or common action. Although it is generally applied to governments, politics is also observed in all human group interactions including corporate, academic, and religious. It is also social relations involving authority and power, the study of government and other political units, It is also the study of conflict resolution, in the modern world, people argue over many beliefs, interests and values, the aim of politics is to remove this conflict to...   [tags: Papers]

Research Papers
1018 words (2.9 pages)

Defining Politics Essay

- Defining Politics Politics is the collective name given to many different systems, ideas and real world issues. It is impossible to define politics as any one thing in particular, but as a label for many different aspects of life encompassed into one. Politics is largely about decision making, Politicians dispute on a regular basis about pending decisions to be made. Decisions to be made, of course vary in size and some are obviously much more important than others....   [tags: Papers]

Research Papers
936 words (2.7 pages)

Defining Year-Round Education Essay

- Defining Year-Round Education For decades, the traditional system of schooling has been followed in schools all over the United States. The traditional system uses nine of the twelve months of the year to teach students, and leaves the remaining three to be used as summer vacation for students and teachers. In contrast to the traditional system, year-round education (abbreviated as YRE) is a system that focuses on readjusting the entire year in a way that will lessen the amount of information lost during the traditional three-month long summer vacation and increase the amount of uninterrupted learning by spreading out the summer vacation over the course of twelve months (NAYRE)....   [tags: Schooling Education Teaching Essays]

Research Papers
3820 words (10.9 pages)

Related Searches

No law enacted by the legislature of Hong Kong would contravene this law (11). The Basic Law couldn’t be changed because it is the legal document between China and Hong Kong. These are the general principles of the Basic Law. Did China keep its promises to Hong Kong as stated in the Basic Law?

After July 1st, 1997, Hong Kong returned to China. The original legislative council, for which the members were chosen by voters of Hong Kong, was dismissed by the Chinese government. A transitional legislative council was formed, for which most of the members had close relationships with China and little tie with Hong Kong. This legislative council was China’s own idea, despise of Great Britain’s protests. They changed the law-setting process by stating that “laws would only be passed with over half of the council or 30 members, and laws would only be vetoed by two third of the council or 40 members; while originally laws could be passed and vetoed by the majority of votes.” Because this legislative council consisted of only members that are pro-Chinese government, laws that favor China’s intervention of Hong Kong were passed. The members were not chosen by population of Hong Kong, therefore they didn’t work for the voice of Hong Kong’s citizens. The election process for the next legislative council was changed in order for pro-Chinese-people to stay in the council in order to fulfill China’s need to control Hong Kong.

Besides the legislative branch, the executive branch of Hong Kong’s government is also filled up with pro-Chinese-Communist people. The Chief Executive, chosen by a small group of representatives from China, is appointed by the Central government of China. The Chief Executive is the only person that has the authority to appoint officials for the executive branch, and he decided to choose his supporters in those positions. Monopolizing the executive and legislative branches, the Chinese Communist government had a firm control in Hong Kong’s internal policies. Though resented by these laws, the citizens in Hong Kong couldn’t change the adverse situation by peaceful demonstrations. Usually, the US and the Great Britain governments would be concerned about Hong Kong’s political status. But most of their attentions turned to Iraq, Afghanistan, and the War on Terrorists since the incident of 9/11 in 2001. Hong Kong’s citizens’ voices couldn’t be heard, therefore the world didn’t notice about the worsening political situation in Hong Kong. Because of this, the Chinese government sped up its process in intervening Hong Kong’s internal policies and converting Hong Kong to a less capitalist and more communist city.

The most obvious examples that showed that China didn’t keep its promise are the Chinese reinstatement of Article 23 and Article 45 of the Basic Law. In 2003, the government began to talk about the passage of laws in order to fulfill the requirements in the Article 23 of the Basic Law. Article 23 states that “Hong Kong should enact laws on its own to prohibit any act of treason, secession, sedition, subversion against China, or theft of state secrets, to prohibit foreign political organizations or bodies from conducting political activities in the Region, and to prohibit political organizations or bodies of the Region from establishing ties with foreign political organizations or bodies (23)”. China favored this article because it wants to eliminate all the opposition to Chinese government. The citizens of Hong Kong worried that their freedoms to express their political views would be reduced or eliminated, therefore opposing the legislation of the law. China violated its promise of “One Country, Two Systems” by forcing the legislation to pass the law without the consent of the citizens of Hong Kong. Citizens were angered by China’s move and decided to protest against China. On July 1st, 2003, nearly 1 million people paraded to show their concerns that the legislation of the law is Hong Kong’s matter, and China was not allowed to interfere its internal policies. They also protested China for delaying the practice of Article 45 of the Basic Law. Article 45 states that “the Chief Executive of Hong Kong would be selected by election held locally and be appointed by China. The ultimate aim was the selection of the Chief Executive by the entire population of Hong Kong so that the process would be totally democratic” (45). Hong Kong citizens demanded that the entire population could participate in the next Chief Executive election in 2008. They questioned that a leader chosen by a small fraction of population wouldn’t represent the entire population at all. China continued to deny the demands of citizens in Hong Kong so that the leader of Hong Kong would continue to be leaning towards China instead of the popular opinions of citizens in Hong Kong. From these examples, Hong Kong citizens should realize that China had broken its promise in the “One Country, Two Systems” for numerous occasions already. They should be alerted so that China wouldn’t take away the rights of them to govern their internal affairs in the future. Additionally, Hong Kong citizens should be active for the city’s democratic movement. They should continue to fight to prevent Hong Kong to turn into a dictatorship similar to the on in Singapore.

From the history, China wasn’t a trustworthy government since its formation in 1949. In early 1950’s, China tried to negotiate with Dalai Lama to talk about Tibet’s future. China tried to persuade that Tibet was belonged to China from long time ago, while Dalai Lama told China that Tibet and China were two independent countries, and they shouldn’t interfere with each other’s affairs. In late 1950’s, the negotiation broke up. China sent military forced, saying that it would help Tibet to improve its economy. In reality, China sent military powers to attack the defenseless Tibet and occupy it by force. Despise the opposition of Tibetans, Chinese suppressed the voices of Tibetans and claimed to the world that Tibet was a part of China in 1960. China just lied to the world since 1960 that Tibet was no longer a country and was belonged to China. Dalai Lama traveled around the world to talk about the Chinese forceful invasion of Tibet, and he received the Nobel Prize in 1989. The credibility of China is nothing; anything that it said wasn’t reliable. China could do whatever and broke promises as soon as China annexed some area. Tibet’s example should raise alerts for Taiwanese government about the future of Taiwan. Taiwan should be careful if they are negotiating with China about Taiwan’s future. The same thing happened to Tibet and Hong Kong could happen to Taiwan. Taiwanese would lose their freedoms and nationalities if they decided to return to China. The world powers should also be careful about China’s credibility, otherwise they would be affected economically and politically.

China might defend that its credibility is perfect. China said that they didn’t interfere with Hong Kong’s internal affairs. China was just helping to defense itself against rebellions and anti-revolutionary movements to overthrow China. China wanted to have political stability in China and Hong Kong. In reality, China was not keeping its promises to Hong Kong. Hong Kong’s internal affairs are severely interfered by China. Also, the citizens in China were being heavily suppressed. Chinese couldn’t enjoy basic freedoms and rights. The totalitarianism regime in China was trying to convert Hong Kong into a communist region so that China could have a more direct control over Hong Kong.

In conclusion, China introduced the famous “One Country, Two Systems”. Then China changed the principles of it. Gradually, China would change the “One Country, Two Systems” into “One Country, One System”. “2+2=5” in the novel “1984” by George Orwell might be happening again in Hong Kong due to China’s expansion in its communism and totalitarianism ideas. Hong Kong’s citizens should take action immediately to show the world about the urgent situation in Hong Kong. The United Nations should set up negotiations between Hong Kong and China to make sure that the “One Country, Two Systems” is working perfectly and Hong Kong will enjoy greater democracy in the future.

Works Cited

Basic Law Committee, “The Basic Law” (Articles 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 11, 23, 45) http://www.info.gov.hk/basic_law/fulltext. accessed September 19th, 2004.
Return to 123HelpMe.com