Essay PreviewMore ↓
From the beginning of time, man has tried to find out where he was and where he was going. Locating places as well as himself has long been a quest. Mankind developed a number of early inventions to help with this search including the compass, the sextant, the map with longitude and latitude, charts, plans, graphs, telescopes, binoculars and numerous other tools to assist him. The most current, extensive, far-reaching and comprehensive of these is the Global Positioning System (GPS).
GPS is a satellite navigation system made up of a network of 24 satellites. The original designers and engineers had military use in mind. It was placed into orbit by the U.S. Department of Defense, and it was originally intended to aid navigation, troop deployment and artillery fire. The official U.S. Department of Defense name for the GPS is the NAVSTAR system, which stands for Navigation Satellite Timing and Ranging. This system cost the United States billions of dollars to develop and build, with the constant additional cost of maintenance. The first GPS satellite was launched in 1978, predating the introduction of the personal computer. The full constellation of 24 satellites was completed in 1994. Each satellite is built to last about 10 years, and replacements are constantly being built and launched into orbit. In the 1980's, by an executive order, the United States Government made the system available for civilian use, and there are no subscription fees or setup charges. GPS works anywhere in the world, in any weather condition.
A GPS satellite weighs approximately 2,000 pounds and is approximately 17 feet across with solar panel extended. The 24 GPS satellites orbit the earth about 12,000 miles above us. They make two complete orbits in less than 24 hours. Currently there are 21 active satellites with 3 operating spares. These satellites are traveling at speeds of approximately 7,000 miles per hour. The GPS satellites are powered by solar energy.
How to Cite this Page
"Global Positionning System Versus the Right To Privacy." 123HelpMe.com. 25 Apr 2019
Need Writing Help?
Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.Check your paper »
- You would think that employee privacy rights only apply to employees that you currently have but it really begins with the hiring process. Companies can reduce the number of labor related incidents during the first step of recruiting by setting up a cost-effective, yet reliable drug testing system. According to Kevin Troutman (2005), "People who abuse drugs are a hazard to companies because they miss work, file more workers' compensation claims, make errors, steal and create safety concerns for other employees".... [tags: Employee Privacy Technology]
1413 words (4 pages)
- Ever since David Packard and Bill Hewlett founded Hewlett-Packard in 1939, the industry of technology has grown rapidly, and does not show signs of slowing down any time soon. The technology industry is constantly growing, providing innovative and helpful ways to accomplish various tasks. New technology is very helpful, however, this machinery is only beneficial if used for the right reasons. For example, a company by the name of NGI (Next Generation identification) has a system where they use scanners and a state-of-the-art biometric identification system, to identify anyone 's identity within seconds.... [tags: Biometrics, Facial recognition system]
1037 words (3 pages)
- Ever since David Packard and Bill Hewlett established Hewlett-Packard in 1939, the industry of technology has advanced rapidly, and does not show signs of slowing down any time soon. The technology industry is constantly growing, providing innovative and helpful ways to accomplish various tasks. New technology is very helpful, however, these electronic appliances are only beneficial if used for the right reasons. For example, a company by the name of NGI (Next Generation identification) has a system where they use scanners and a state-of-the-art biometric identification system, to identify anyone 's identity within seconds.... [tags: Biometrics, Facial recognition system]
1036 words (3 pages)
- Global Privacy… Are You Being Watched?. Introduction Privacy has grown to become an intensely complex and important human rights topic in the information age. The right to privacy underlines human dignity. One of the first privacy laws can be traced back hundreds of years, to 1361, when England enacted the Justice of the Peace Act, which allowed the arrest of eavesdroppers and peeping toms.1 About every country in the world explicitly recognizes a right of privacy in their constitution, allowing people to have a right to home communication secrecy and inviolability at the very least.... [tags: Surveillance Technology Essays]
2323 words (6.6 pages)
- Most countries around the world agree on two basic rights: the right to life and the right to liberty. Outside of these most basic human rights, what else do we deserve. And do human rights apply to animals as well. The ethics system of Universality seeks to answer these questions. Not only should human rights be increased worldwide, but we must also make an effort to improve the lives of the animals that we share this planet with. Whether it is a human or an animal, the suffering and pain of a living thing is unnecessary.... [tags: civil rights, human rights, universality]
1548 words (4.4 pages)
- 1. INTRODUCTION Pretty Good Privacy, known as the PGP, is a popular program for encryption and decryption of data, providing security services for electronic mail messages and data files. Created by Philip Zimmermann in 1991, this program has been widely used throughout the global computer community to protect the confidentiality and integrity of the users’ data, giving them the privacy of delivering messages and files only to their intended individual or authorized person (Singh, 2012). Not only being useful for individuals as a privacy-ensuring program, it has also been used in many corporations to protect their company’s data from falling into the wrong hands (Rouse, 2005).... [tags: cryptology, communication, electronic]
930 words (2.7 pages)
- Privacy in the Cellular World Does technology such as GPS violate the privacy of cell phone users. "Law enforcement is right that this technology may help track kidknappers, but this is also going to help the kidknappers stalk their victims" (1) --James X. Dempsey, senior staff counsel at the Center for Democracy and technology Cellular telephones, long associated with untethered freedom, are becoming silent leashes, as cellular companies have been mandated by the FCC (Federal Communications Commission) to adopt and install location finding equipment into their designs.... [tags: Cell Phones Communication Essays]
2847 words (8.1 pages)
- According to the first amendment, citizens of the United States are guaranteed freedom of speech. My older friends and family members tell me that that is true, or at least it used to be. In our current generation there is one major factor of society where freedom of speech is extremely limited. That part of society is social networking. This leaves me to, is our generation free to express our opinions whenever we feel the urge. According to Oscar Gandy’s (1993) perspective, “we probably do not.” Recent studies have shown that teenagers are willingly giving up private information to social networking sites just to be able to join that online community, and not realizing the problems this... [tags: Facebook, Twitter]
1178 words (3.4 pages)
- Domestic Surveillance Elizabeth Mahan SOC 120 Introduction to Ethics & Social Responsibility Instructor: Cari Lynn Beecham-Bautista June 29, 2015 DOMESTIC SURVEILLANCE Introduction Merriam-Webster’s Dictionary defines domestic as “relating to or made in your own country”. The word surveillance is defined as “the act of carefully watching someone or something, especially in order to prevent or detect a crime”. Therefore, the term Domestic Surveillance in its simplest terms can be defined as the government’s ability to protect its interest by monitoring its residents.... [tags: Privacy, Privacy law, Ethics, Surveillance]
2230 words (6.4 pages)
- RFID Tags and Invasion of Personal Privacy Historically, the advent of innovative, influential technology has reformed our lives in post-industrial America, creating new amenities on hand, along with altering conventional laws governing this facet of modern living. The revolutionary and global capability of telecommunications has shaped new means for dealing with information, and changed the role of a private citizen among this new technology. Traditionally in America, private citizens have been separate from government or public involvement in personal matters such as identity, and unique characteristics defining that identity. Lately, radio frequency identification (RFIDs) is an upcom... [tags: Exploratory Essays Research Papers]
661 words (1.9 pages)
There are three segments to the system including:
The Space Segment consisting of the 24 satellites is the heart of the system. The satellites orbits the earth every 12 hours, and they are arranged in 6 orbital planes equally spaced 60 degrees apart. A GPS receiver on earth can always receive from at least four of them at any time.
The Control Segment controls the GPS satellites by tracking them and providing them with corrected orbital and clock information. There are 5 control stations located around the world, 4 unmanned monitoring stations and 1 master control station located at Schriever Air Force Base in Colorado.
The User Segment consists of the GPS receiver and the individual user. The GPS receivers convert the monitor station signals into position, velocity, and time estimates. Receivers are made for aircraft, ships, ground vehicles and for hand carrying by individuals. The user can be the military or the police, or a boater, pilot, hiker, hunter, or automobile driver.
Precise Positioning Service (PPS) refers to authorized users with cryptographic equipment and keys and specially equipped receivers use the PPS. The United States and Allied military, certain United States Government agencies can use the PPS. Standard Positioning Service (SPS) refers to civil users worldwide.
The GPS signal contains three different bits of transmitted information:
A pseudorandom code is an I.D. code that identifies which satellite is transmitting the information.
¨Ephemeris data contains information about the status of the satellite, date and time and the part of the signal which determines position.
¨Almanac data shows where each GPS is throughout the day, including the orbital information for that satellite and for every other satellite in the system.
The GPS receivers take this information and use triangulation to calculate the receiver's exact location. The GPS receiver compares the time a signal was trasmitted by a satellite with the time it was received. The time difference tells the GPS receiver how far away the satellite is. A GPS receiver must be locked on to the signal of at least three satellites to calculate a position including latitude and longitude (2D) and track movement. With four or more satellites in view, the receiver can determine the receiver's 3D position, latitude, longitude and altitude. Once the receiver's position has been determined, the GPS unit can calculate speed, track, trip distance, distance to destination, and much more information.
GPS has a variety of applications by civilians, on land, at sea and in the air. At sea, GPS can be used for navigation by commercial ships and boats, merchant marine, and recreational boaters. The scientific community uses GPS for numerous engineering tasks such as surveying. Basic survey units can offer accuracy down to a centimeter. Recreational users include hikers, hunters, snowmobilers, mountain bikers, and cross country skiers. GPS is rapidly becoming commonplace in automobiles. GPS can develop a route or record a journey in a track log. In the air, exceptional positioning information is critical.
This is especially true in deteriorating weather conditions, when visibility is dramatically impaired. GPS can save peoples lives in these situations.
The GPS is an advanced, innovative and complicated piece of technology. It utilizes a relatively minor piece of equipment and allows an amazing amount of information to be easily gathered and transmitted. The technology is here and currently in use, and society is faced with the question of how we wish to use this technology while preserving the hard won concept of the right to privacy. The United States Government and most other government agencies would argue that the most important consideration is the general welfare and safety of the population. That means they are in favor of unrestricted use of the GPS. Commercial and corporate enterprise would argue that the most important consideration is the marketability of the device and the general usefulness and convenience provided by the GPS. Constitutionally speaking, it is important to consider the underlying repercussions of this remarkable technology. The essential underlying question to be explored is the Right to Privacy versus the Common Good.
The Constitution of the United States of America begins "We the People of the united States, in order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquillity, provide for the common defense, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America." There can be little argument that these words would support the development and expansion of technological advances such as the GPS to enhance the general welfare. Although the Authors of the Constitution could not have imagined such devices, they did provide a framework for reviewing the use of such a system.
It is interesting to note, the term "the Right to Privacy" is not explicitly used in the Constitution. The references supporting the Right to Privacy usually refer to The First Amendment which states "Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances", and The Fourth Amendment which states "The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no Warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by Oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched and the persons or things to be seized".
The concept of the Right to Privacy is based on the ideas and concepts contained in these two amendments, and they have been significantly explored and reviewed over the past 226 years. Initially, in the first 100 years of the Constitution, the concept of a right to privacy was connected through the legal doctrine of the right to private property. The English philosopher, John Locke, heavily influenced American thinking. He wrote that property is based in "an original law of nature", and in the United States, the right to private property was considered semi-sacred. It was a reflection of a natural law, an inalienable right. In an 1890 essay by Samuel D. Warren and Louis D. Brandeis, a future Supreme Court Justice, the idea was developed that the right to privacy is conceptually distinct from other freedoms, particularly the right to private property. They framed their argument in terms of "the right to be let alone", and referred to the "rights of private and domestic life" as "sacred". In the l960s, the Supreme Court case of Griswold v. United States is commonly credited with establishing a constitutional right to privacy. In Griswold, the Supreme Court ruled that a Connecticut statute forbidding the use of contraceptives violated the right of marital privacy. Overnight, privacy was established, recognized and honored, and numerous other cases followed suit.
There continues to be a struggle in identifying the boundary between an individual's right to privacy and the common good. I believe that the GPS system should be available for people in the private sector who want to use it. I also believe that the government should not be allowed to use GPS to track people and infringe on their right to privacy. The Global Positioning System was developed by the government using tax dollars collected from United States citizens. Such an advanced technological tool provides convenience, usefulness and safety. However, I am concerned the government will use this technology to invade our right to privacy. So as citizens we need to protect our rights and make sure the government's use of GPS does not go unsupervised.
1999 Federal Radionavigation Plan, February 2000. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation and Department of Defense. Available on line from United States Coast Guard Navigation Center.
GARMIN International, Inc., December 2000. Available on line www.garmin.com.
¨Global Positioning System Overview, Peter H. Dana, 2nd Edition, May 1, 2000.
Available on line from Department of Geography, The University of Colorado at Boulder.
¨Global Positioning System Standard Positioning Service Specification, United States Coast Guard, 2nd Edition, June 2, 1995. Available on line from United States Coast Guard Navigation Center.
¨Kaplan, Elliott D. ed. 1996. Understand GPS: Principles and Application. Boston: .Artech House Publishers