Essay PreviewMore ↓
The key issues involve whether the U.S. should sustain the current death penalty system, abolish it in favor of life in prison without parole plus restitution, or only reform the system to make it less costly and free of class, racial, and mental illness discrepancies. Many people have a stake in the issue. Organizations such as Amnesty International and the American Civil Liberties Union are against the death penalty because they claim it is a cruel and unusual form of punishment, while other groups such as the National Center for Policy Analysis support the death penalty because they believe that life sentences do not deter homicide. Furthermore, victims’ families have a stake in the issue because they deserve justice for their murdered loved ones, and convicted murders have a stake because their own lives are in jeopardy as they sit on death row. Most importantly, all the citizens of the United States are involved in the matter, since the way in which we punish crime affects public safety.
Death penalty supporters believe that capital punishment is the only sure way to deter murderers from committing murders again. “The argument that murderers are the least likely of all criminals to repeat their crimes is not only irrelevant, but also increasingly false. Six percent of young adults paroled in 1978 after having been convicted of murder were arrested for murder again with six years of release” (Death Penalty Paper).
How to Cite this Page
"Politics and The Death Penalty." 123HelpMe.com. 22 Jul 2018
Need Writing Help?
Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.Check your paper »
- Throughout history, Americans have pursued what was needed or wanted; determination is the American way. If fledgling colonies needed more food to support families, a farmer cultivated more crops; if communities wanted more supplies, companies mass produced until desires were met. Nonetheless, if a new idea turned out to be corrupt, then the thought was discontinued and effaced from memory. In today’s twenty first century society, an idea from the past has become crooked and is no longer needed.... [tags: capital punishment, death penalty]
1712 words (4.9 pages)
- The Death Penalty in The United States Capital punishment results in the victims family gaining a greater sense of security, making sure the criminal is able to be punished to the highest degree for his crime, and honoring retribution. The issue of capital punishment has created a division and tension in our country. The controversy in our society is whether the death penalty/capital punishment serves as a justified form of punishment. Justice can be served by inflicting the death sentence for murder.... [tags: capital punishment, death penalty]
1557 words (4.4 pages)
- The Death Penalty As a Form of Justice Around the World Introduction: The death penalty is a subject that has become very big in the 21st century. Many centuries ago the death penalty is something that was widely practiced in almost all cultures. This revenge sort of action was the only way some old civilizations felt could really prevent criminals from breaking the law. The USA today is almost left alone among nations when it comes to the death penalty and the U.S. government does not have a problem with that.... [tags: Death Penalty Capital Punishment]
1457 words (4.2 pages)
- If You Were Running a Political Campaign, What Would be Your Candidate's Position on the Death Penalty. Abstract "... by taking the position of capital punishment reform, we feel that we can appease the most people. Our candidate would risk alienating some of the more moderate voters if we recommended a more radical stance. Our stance appeals to both sides because we do not abolish the death penalty outright, nor do we leave the capital punishment situation unchanged. We will appease those looking for abolishment by greatly restricting the use of the death penalty, and, as stated earlier, eliminating most of the problems within the capital punishment system.... [tags: Politics Political Science]
3813 words (10.9 pages)
- A contentious issue in current debate is the death penalty and its application in society. The death penalty, also known as capital punishment, occurs when a individual is punished by execution as a consequence of an offence they committed (Taylor, 2014). Although Australia does not practice the death penalty, many countries continue to employ it as a means of justice and uphold its value in society. The death penalty debate is a multifaceted issue, encompassing many aspects of society including ethics and morality, the judicial system, and politics and the economy.... [tags: capital punishment]
1742 words (5 pages)
- “If we fail to execute murderers, and doing so would in fact have deterred other murders, we have allowed the killing of a bunch of innocent victims. I would much rather risk the former. This, to me, is not a tough call." (McAdams) The death penalty should be legalized in all fifty states, to avert from crime, keep repeat offenders off of the streets, and to reduce taxpayers the cost of keeping those found guilty of heinous crimes in prison low. The death penalty can in fact deter heinous crimes from being committed when it is lawful in a state.... [tags: Capital Punishment Essays]
615 words (1.8 pages)
- Capital punishment and the practice of the death penalty is an issue that is passionately debated in the United States. Opponents of the death penalty claim that capital punishment is unnecessary since a life sentence accomplishes the same objective. What death penalty opponents neglect to tell you is that convicted murders and child rapists escape from prison every year(List of prison escapes, 2015). As I write this essay, police are searching for two convicted murders who escaped from the Clinton Correctional Facility in Dannemora, New York on June 6th, 2015.... [tags: Capital Punishment essays research papers]
961 words (2.7 pages)
- The death penalty is one of the most controversial issues we have in our country today. The people are divided between supporting and opposing the death penalty. The supporters would say that it is a deterrent for future crimes. They would also say that taxpayer dollars are not going to pay for the care of these individuals. The opposition would say that the cost of the death penalty is actually higher than the cost of a life sentence. They also find that the deterrent argument is debatable. (meggiem, 2012) There is evidence that contradicts the supporters’ claims.... [tags: social and economic costs]
612 words (1.7 pages)
- Wrongful Death Row Convictions On Jan. 31, 2000, citing a "shameful record of convicting innocent people and putting them on death row," Gov. George Ryan of Illinois made headline news by imposing a moratorium on executions in the state. While Gov. Ryan's willingness to step outside his political box to call for a careful examination of our system of capital punishment so far is unique, the underlying problems that produced such staggeringly unfair results are not. According to the Death Penalty Information Center, a Washington think tank, more than 80 people have been released from death row on grounds of innocence since 1973.... [tags: Against Death Penalty Essays]
352 words (1 pages)
- Politics Another presidential election season has come and will surely drag on for another six long arduous boring months. The primaries went by quicker than ever leaving us with our two nominees for president: George W. Bush and Al Gore. Yes, everyone is thinking it: another “lesser of two evils” election. Voter turnout is at an all time low. People are fed up with their “choices” and just do not vote. Currently the races for president is a dead heat, not because people do not care or are not informed, but because the people have seen that all the candidates are the same.... [tags: Papers]
839 words (2.4 pages)
Furthermore, death penalty supporters argue that the concern should be in saving the lives of potential victims, not protecting the rights of the criminals. “Of the roughly 52,000 state prison inmates serving time for murder in 1984, an estimated 810 had previously been convicted of murder and had killed 821 persons following their previous murder convictions. Executing each of these inmates would have saved 821 lives” (Death Penalty Paper). Ernest van den Haag, a Professor of Jurisprudence at Fordham University who has closely studied deterrence, wrote:
Even though statistical demonstrations are not conclusive, and perhaps cannot be, capital punishment is likely to deter more than other punishments because people fear death more than anything else. They fear most death deliberately inflicted by law and schedule by the courts. Whatever people fear the most is likely to deter the most. Hence, the threat of the death penalty may deter some murderers who otherwise might not have been deterred (Deterrence: In Support).
Thus, death penalty supporters claim that even the possibility that capital punishment will deter murderers from murdering again is enough reason to maintain the system.
However, by comparing national homicide rates, it is clear that the death penalty does not deter crime. A study on the years spanning from 1973 to 1984 illustrated that death penalty states have a generally higher homicide rate than states that do not enforce the death penalty (Paternoster). Furthermore, during the 1970’s moratorium on the death penalty, there was no unusually significant increase in the number of homicides. In 1975, when the death penalty was not in use, the homicide rate was 8.8 per 100,000. Unfortunately, after the death penalty was reinstated, the homicide rate rose steadily to 10.2 in 1980 (U.S. Dept. of Justice). In fact, studies have shown that the number of homicides increases shortly after an execution (Paternoster). This phenomenon, known as the “brutalization effect,” suggests that by allowing the government to order an execution, the United States sends out the message that murder can be justified (Paternoster). In addition, more publicity surrounding executions did not decrease the number of homicides (Paternoster). Even when people were made more aware of the consequences that go along with committing a murder, they murdered regardless. Furthermore, international comparisons indicate the unsuccessfulness of the death penalty in deterring homicide. In 1975, Canada’s homicide rate hit a peak 3.09 per 100,000 people. In 1976, its death penalty was abolished, and the homicide rate has decreased steadily by 42% (Facts and Figures on the Death Penalty). Thus, it is clear that the deterrence effect is nonexistent.
Race is another factor that causes debate on the use of the death penalty. There exists a stigma around the death penalty that capital punishment cases are performed with an inherent bias towards people of color. Supporters of the death penalty argue that of the total number of individuals who have been executed since 1976, only 306 were black while 510 were white (“Race”) and of the total number of persons executed in 2002 alone, 53 were white while only 18 were black (“Capital”). Also, white inmates comprised more than half (57.2%) of those executed on death row since 1976 (“Race of Death Row Inmates Executed Since 1976”). Statistics show that whites also outnumber blacks on death row. As of 2002, the number of white prisoners on death row, 1,931, greatly outnumbers the number of black prisoners on death row, 1,554 (“Key”). Furthermore, when looking at the overall defendant-victim ratios of executions, the majority (56.81%) of cases involve a white defendant with a white victim (Kent). Thus, death penalty supporters believe that the statistics show that there are no racial prejudices in death sentencing.
However, there do exist racial prejudices in the implementation of the death penalty. There are currently 1600 black prisoners under the death sentence, only 62 less than whites. (U.S. Dept. of Justice) However, while whites make up 77% of the U.S. population (including Hispanic persons who identify themselves as white), blacks make up only 13%. (U.S. Census Bureau) (King) Therefore there is a clear bias in the execution of the death penalty when the overall racial makeup of the U.S. population is taken into account.
Contrary to public belief, utilization of the death penalty is much more costly than keeping a criminal imprisoned for life without parole. In fact, the death penalty poses a significant financial drain on the individual states as well as on the central government, spending the same money that is used to build and maintain schools, hospitals, recreational parks, roads and highways. On death row, the average cost is $55.14 per day to incarcerate an inmate, with the stay on death row being 12 years. This means that it will cost a state roughly $241,513.20 per inmate on death row until they are executed. This however is not where the significant amount of money is spent. Since the U.S. Judicial System is constructed to ensure everyone fair and equal rights, inmates are entitled to the appeals process upon their death penalty sentence. In fact, the first appeals are automatic. During the course of appeals, the cost of using the death penalty becomes significantly larger. From 1982 to 1997, the cost of capital punishment cases in the U.S. totals over $1.6 billion dollars. Comparing the costs of the death penalty versus life imprisonment is a bit more difficult, as the cost of trial (defense and prosecution attorneys, bringing the case to court) varies:
Example of trial costs in Los Angeles, California
Trial Defense Prosecution Defense Prosecution Court L.A. Jail Total Cost
Attorney Attorney Investigation Investigation
Capital $385,998 $771,996 $48,523 $48,523 $506,408 $136,875 $1,898,323
Regular $160,058 $320,116 $ 5,105 $ 5,105 $ 82,188 $ 54,750 $ 627,322
This chart represents a case study performed as part of a Master’s thesis at University of California at Berkley, and is a small representation of the varying costs at the trial level. California alone spends $90 million annually, with $78 million of that going towards the judicial process. In Texas and North Carolina, it costs over $2 million per execution.
Furthermore, international comparisons indicate that the death penalty is not the best way to ensure public safety. The death penalty has been abolished in our “peer” countries such as England, Australia, Canada, France, and Germany for ordinary crimes such as murder and rape. The U.S. remains retentionist along with China, North Korea, Iran, and Iraq, countries of questionable human rights practices. According to Amnesty International, while 122 countries denounce the death penalty, only 83 still implement it (Facts and Figures on the Death Penalty). However, with 83 countries refusing to abolish the death penalty, 71% of world executions in 2002 took place in the U.S., China, and Iran (Facts and Figures on the Death Penalty). With all of these executions, the United States still remains one of the most murderous places in the world. In 2000, the U.S. had the sixth highest homicide rate, at 5.87 people per 100,000 (Int’l Comparisons of Criminal Justice Stats). Washington D.C. remains the most murderous capital in the world, with a 45.79 per 100,000-murder rate reported in 2000 (Int’l Comparisons of Criminal Justice Stats). In terms of handgun murders, while New Zealand had two murders due to handguns, Japan fifteen, and United Kingdom thirty in 1996, the United States had 9,390 (Brady Center). Thus, gun control should be a greater concern to Americans than the implementation of the death penalty, since we are not succeeding in ensuring our citizens’ safety, in comparison with the rest of the world.
Understanding why criminals commit crime is also important in understanding the death penalty’s causes and ramifications. Mental illness is one cause and in 1986, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that the execution of a mentally ill person violates the eighth amendment ban on cruel and unusual punishment. The court stated: “the intuition that such an execution simply offends humanity is evidently shared across this nation,” (“Capital Punishment”). In a 1989 case, Justice William J. Brennan determined that executions of the mentally ill “…do not further the penal goals of either retribution or deterrence” and instead is “a deliberate social imposition,” (“Capital Punishment”) “the ultimate denial of human rights” by the government. (Amnesty International)
However, if legislation is passed that prohibits the execution of the mentally retarded, death penalty supporters argue that the justice system will result in chaos. One debate is on the definition of mental illness; (Sharp) the Supreme Court believes it is individuals with IQ of 70 or below. However, the National Alliance for the Mentally Ill (NAMI) states that it is “…biological in nature, a brain disorder that affects logical, rational thought processes and emotions.” (Hamilton) The NAMI suggests medical treatment for mentally ill offenders as a better solution to solving the problem of crime, as they usually stay longer in the hospital than if they were sentenced to life in prison. In addition, they call for a reevaluation of the judicial definition of mental illness, (Hamilton) believing that the Supreme court’s standards for mental illness are too stringent: Atlanta death row lawyer Stephen Bright believes very few criminals satisfy its criteria. (Holland)
Moreover, if criminals cannot rationalize their actions, then the death penalty can have no effect on the decisions of future offenders. Mentally ill individuals should be punished for crime, but punishment should be “proportional to the seriousness of the crime and the defendant’s mental state and the degree of moral culpability.” (“Capital Punishment”) The same argument can be applied to juveniles, defined by international standards as anyone under the age of eighteen. Juveniles “lack experience, perspective, judgment and intelligence of adults and have less capacity to control their conduct and to think in long-range terms.” (“Capital Punishment”) According to Amnesty International, only six countries have documented executions of child offenders since 1976: China, Yemen, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Nigeria and the United States. In addition, the U.S. carried out 19 of these executions, more than all the other countries combined. Sixteen-year-old Sean Sellers was the last executed juvenile in the US. Amnesty International, though, says international law prohibits juvenile executions. (“Key Topics”)
Not many individuals show confidence in the judicial system; only 29% of individuals report having a great deal of confidence. (US Dept. of Justice) A reason for this lack of confidence arises from the fact that juries essentially decide the outcome of death penalty trials. Death penalty supporters believe that the erratic nature of juries is not important in the death penalty issue. Haag believes that “equality, in short, seems morally less important than justice” and “…justice is independent of distributional inequalities.” (Haag) He believes that the capricious distribution of death sentences makes no difference to whether it should exist or not; what matters is that guilty people are being punished. (Haag) However, death penalty opponents argue that it is morally unfair to place the decision in the hands of capricious juries. For example, in the Dung D. Trinh case, the first jury voted in favor of life in prison without parole, 10 to 2. But the second jury voted in favor of the death penalty, 11 to 1. California’s Orange County public defender sums up the death penalty as depending too much “…on the makeup of the juries” and “…the finding of death may be entirely capricious. How can we support a death verdict that may really be a coin toss?” (Pfeifer) Also, many jury members also believe that they are responsible for killing the person on death row. (Pfeifer) In short, the fairness of a trial depends on the makeup of the jury.
Moreover, general criminological theory suggests that offenders are themselves victims of mental and societal ills and that a reduction in crime will benefit both victims and offenders. (Hirschi) New York University professor of psychiatry, Dorothy Otnow Lewis research shows that most killers are damaged and victimized persons of child abuse and lifelong traumas. (Manserus) Death penalty opponents affirm that the problem of crime is not being solved properly by states. Lois Robinson, whose son Larry was executed in Texas in 1999, believes that the state does not want to put money into treating its mentally ill, potentially saving millions of lives of both victims and offenders. Texas spends approximately two million dollars on prosecuting the average capital murder case, but falls within the bottom ten of states in per capita expenditures on mental health. (King) Only 7.7 percent of inmates in Texas receive therapy/counseling in state correctional facilities. (US Dept. of Justice)
There also exist very conflicting views in terms of religion and the death penalty. People on both sides of the capital punishment argument cite some of their religious beliefs based on the contents of the Bible. Many religious groups in support of the death penalty commonly quote Genesis: “Whoso sheddeth man’s blood, by man shall his blood be shed: for in the image of God made he man.” (Genesis 9:6). This passage states that men should punish each other for crimes such as murder. Those in opposition to the death penalty take their textual basis of support from the New Testament, and a famous phrase in John 8:7: “He who is without sin among you, let him throw a stone at her first,” (Robinson p.1). Here, the Bible claims that no one is perfect, and therefore no one has the right to pass judgment in regards to another person’s life. Even though many groups cite passages from religious texts, there are numerous contradictions and errors contained in both the New and Old Testaments, which put their information into question. Also, with so much controversy regarding the separation of church and state, the wisest position for a presidential candidate to take is to avoid religious arguments as much as possible.
Furthermore, discussing the morality of the death penalty is not complete without considering the families of the victims. Many families believe that the killing of an offender can never make up for the loss of a precious loved one and instead can cause prolonged pain. In addition, the judicial process, complete with appeal after appeal, is a painful and tedious process for the families involved. Marietta Jaeger, whose daughter was murdered, believes that “the continuous sequence of courtroom scenes inherent in death penalty cases only serve to keep emotional wounds raw and in pain for years.” (Dieter) In the Dwayne Carrekar case in New Jersey, prosecutors decided to seek life in prison without parole and not the death penalty, adhering to the victim’s family’s wishes. The victim’s mother was more interested in justice and closure than the death penalty.” (“Prosecutors Drop Death Penalty As Victims’ Mother Seeks Closure”) Organizations such as the Murder Victims Families for Reconciliation’s motives are to change the theme from killing to healing. (Dieter)
Politicians tend to avoid the death penalty question because they believe most people support executions. However, when other options of punishment are presented, the majority of Americans do not support the death penalty. Although 77% of Americans show abstract support for the death penalty, the number drops to 41% in favor the death penalty over life in prison without parole plus restitution (Dieter). Furthermore, a significant number of Americans have serious doubts as to the fairness of the imposing of the death penalty. 48% express concerns over the issue of racism in the application of punishment and 46% are concerned about the high costs (Dieter). An overwhelming 58% of Americans have worries over the question of innocence, and rightfully so (Dieter). Since 1973, 112 prisoners have been released from death row after finding evidence of their innocence (Facts and Figures on the Death Penalty).
Furthermore, studies show that people are misinformed about the death penalty. Only 4% believe that a person convicted of first-degree murder will spend his life in prison; the average estimate by Americans over how long a convicted murderer will spend in prison is only 15.6 years (Dieter). Even when people were asked if they believed that a person sentenced to life in prison without parole would actually spend their life in prison, only 11% believed it (Dieter). In reality, however, two thirds of states have mandatory life in prison with no eligibility for parole sentences for murderers, and most states have at least twenty-five year minimum sentences (Dieter). Thus, if people were correctly informed about prison sentences, they would be less likely to support the death penalty.
Because we have found that the majority of voters do not support the death penalty when other forms of punishment are presented, we suggest that the candidate take a cautiously anti-death penalty stance. There exist serious racial, class, and mental discrepancies in the implementation of the death penalty. Furthermore, we have found that executing murderers does not have a deterrence effect on the homicide rate. Most of the world has opposed the death penalty, and we should follow the lead of our peer countries. Almost all nations in opposition of the death penalty have lower crime rates than the United States, so we have nothing to lose but a decrease in the homicide rate by imitating them.
However, in order to avoid a presidential election defeat similar to the 1988 anti-death penalty candidate Michael Dukasis, the candidate may only want to sign the international treaties promising to not actively implement the death penalty, yet not abolishing the entire system either. The candidate may wish to suggest a moratorium, similar to the halt instituted in the 1970’s, until more studies have been conducted. By having the candidate present to the American public all of the evidence we have found, and by allowing him to cautiously sign international treaties and instituting a moratorium, he will be able to win the election and gain the respect of the international community, while simultaneously saving American lives.
Akers, Ronald L. “Theories of Crime and Deviance”. Sociology: Social Foundations of Public Issues. McGraw Hill. 2003. Pg. 59.
“America Still Leas Industrialized World in Handgun Homicide, Despite Gains Made Since Brady Law.” The Brady Center to Prevent Gun Violence. March 30, 1998.
Amnesty International. “The Death Penalty: Questions and Answers”. 12 April 2000. 4 February 2004.
Audi, Robert. “The Seperation of Church and State and the Obligations of Citizenship.” Philosophy and Public Affairs. Vol. 18, No. 3. (Summer, 1989), pp. 259-296. 20 Feb. 2004.
Baicker, Katherine. “The Budgetary Repercussions of Capital Convictions”. National Bureau of Economic Research. July. 2001. Abstract. 10 Feb. 2004.
Bureau of Justice Statistics. “Capital Punishment Statistics.” 7 February 2004.
Bureau of Justice Statistics. “Key Facts at a Glance: Prisoners on Death Row by Race.” 4 February 2004.
“Crime and Control: Even with Death Penalty, Most Killers Walk.” National Center for Policy Analysis. 14 ebruary 2004. http://www.ncpa.org/pi/crime/jan98g.html>
“Capital Punishment and Mental Retardation: International Human Rights Law”. Human Rights Watch. 15 February 2004.
“Death Penalty Paper.” Pro-Death Penalty. 27 January 2004.
“Death Row Fact Sheet”. Florida Department of Corrections. 20 Feb. 2004.
“Deterrence (In Opposition of the Death Penalty).” 7 February 2004.
“Deterrence (In Support of the Death Penalty).” 7 February 2004.
Dieter, Richard C. “Families of Murder Victims”. Death Penalty Information Center. April 1993.
19 February 2004.
Dieter, Richard. “Sentencing For Life: Americans Embrace Alternatives to the Death Penalty.”
Death Penalty Information Center. April 1993.
“Facts About the Death Penalty”. Death Penalty Information Center Fact Sheet. 18 Feb.2004. Death Penalty Info Center. 19 Feb. 2004.
“Facts and Figures on the Death Penalty.” Amnesty International. January 30, 2004. 10 February 2004.
Farrell, Mike. “The High Cost of the Death Penalty to Taxpayers.” Death Penalty Focus.
Fitrakis, Bob. “Axis of Injustice”. Columbus Alive. 15 August 2002. Page 6.
Haag, Ernest van den. “The Ultimate Punishment: A Defense”. Copyright 1986 Harvard Law Review Association.
18 February 2004.
Hamilton, Tom- President of NAMI Texas. “The Andrea Yates Case: Family to Family.” National Alliance for the Mentally Ill, Texas. 17 September 2001. 5 February 2004.
Hirschi, Travis. “Crime”. Sociology: Social Foundations of Public Issues. McGraw Hill. 2003. Pg. 107.
Holland, Gina. “Mental Illness is latest death penalty issue at Supreme Court”. 8 November 2002. 5 February 2004.
Holland, Gina. “Justices Look at the Execution of the Mentally Ill”. St. Louis Post. St. Louis, Monday 10 November 2002. 11 February 2004. Pg. A.7.
International Comparisons of Criminal Justice Statistics 2002. Crimes reported by the police: homicide. Homicide rate per 100,000 population. Table 1.1.
International Comparisons of Criminal Justice Statistics 2002. Table B: Comparison of
Homicide in Selected Cities.
Jacoby, Jeff. “Execution saves innocents…”. The Boston Globe. Boston, Mass. September 28, 2003. Pg. H.11. 12 February 2004.
Kent, Edward. “Death Row, U.S.A.” 5 April 1996.
“Key Topics: Execution of Child Offenders”. 30 August 2002. 19 February 2004.
King, Michael. “Execution vs. Treating the Ill”. Christian Science Monitor. Boston, Mass. 16 August 1999. Pg. 9. 12 February 2004.
Mansnerus, Laura. “Damaged Brains and the Death Penalty.” Death Penalty Information Center: New York Times article. July 21, 2001. 4 February 2004.
Paternoster, Raymond. “Myths and Misconceptions about the Death Penalty.” Sociology:
Social Foundations of Public Issues. McGraw Hill, 2003. 12-31.
Pfeifer, Stuart. “Death Penalty a Hard Sell to O.C. Jurors.” Los Angeles Times. Los Angeles, Calif. 20 January 2003. Pg. B.4. 12 February 2004.
“Prosecutors Drop Death Penalty As Victims’ Mother Seeks Closure”. Death Penalty Information Center. 6 February 2004. 19 February 2004.
“Race of Death Row Inmates Executed Since 1976.” Death Penalty Information Center. 4 February 2004. 21 February 2004.
Robinson, Bruce A. “Capital Punishment; The Death Penalty”. 8 June. 1995. Religious Tolerance. 18 Feb. 2004.
Schweizer, Joe. “Are minorities treated fairly in the justice system?” The Daily Home. 23 November 2003. 7 February 2004.
Sharp, Dudley. “Mental Retardation and the Death Penalty”. Justice For All. 18 October 2001. 11 February 2004.
Sharp, Dudley. “Pro and Con: The Death Penalty in Black and White”. 24 June 1999. 11 February 2004.
U.S. Census Bureau. 2000 Briefs and Special Reports. 19 February 2004. http://www.census.gov/population/www/cen2000/briefs.html.
U.S. Census Bureau. The Black Population in the United States: March 2002. 19 February 2004.
U.S. Department of Justice: Bureau of Justice Statistics. Homicide trends in the U.S. 19 February 2004.
U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics. Sourcebook of Criminal Justice Statistics 2002. Table 2.12: Reported confidence in the criminal justice system. 2003.
U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics. Sourcebook of Criminal Justice Statistics 2002. Table 6.71: State Correctional Facilities providing mental health screening and treatment. 30 June 2000.
U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics. Sourcebook of Criminal Justice Statistics 2002. Table 6.72: Inmates receiving mental health treatment in State correctional facilities.1 January 2000.
U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics. Sourcebook of Criminal Justice Statistics 2002. Table 6.77: Prisoners under death sentence. 1 January 2000.
US Embassy in France. “DEATH PENALTY IN THE UNITED STATES”. United States Embassy in France. Information Resource Center. 18 Feb. 2004.