Essay PreviewMore ↓
Before Dolly the cloned sheep made news headlines, the same researchers had only the year before raised seven other sheep from oocytes whose nuclei had been replaced with nuclei from either fetal or embryonic tissue.1 This created a minor stir as this is the "first report to [their] knowledge, of live mammalian offspring following nuclear transfer from an established cell line."1 The implications of this is that they have provided techniques to analyze and modify gene functions in sheep (By providing clones of the same sheep).1 The key to their success is the "serum starvation" that the donor cell undergoes, to force the donor cell into a 'quiescent' state, so that it is not replicating its DNA or dividing. This possibly makes the nucleus more susceptible to re-programming by the recipient egg cell.
The researchers built on this knowledge, and carried out a nuclear transfer from cells from the mammary gland of a 6-year old ewe in the last trimester of pregnancy. (instead of fetal or embryonic stem cells). After 277 nuclear transfers, Dolly was born.2 Dolly shows morphological characteristics belonging to the breed (Finn Dorset)that donated the nucleus instead of the oocyte donor or the surrogate mother(Scottish Blackface). Thus erasing any possibility of the birth due to the mating of the surrogate mother with another sheep.
In 1975 Gurdon, Laskey & Reeves showed that nuclei transfer from keratinised skin cells of adult frogs supported growth to the tadpole stage 3. Wilmut's experiment took one step further and managed for the organism(Dolly) to grow to adulthood, thereby confirming that adult cells do in fact contain workable versions of all the genes necessary to produce an entire organism.
Previously there was widespread belief that cells from adult mammals cannot be persuaded to regenerate a whole organism. Now that Wilmut has proven once and for all that this is otherwise, many cloning experiments that were once fantasy could now be accomplished. For example, an organism of interest can be cloned from any living cells from it if it no longer can reproduce normally (perhaps due to defects in gametes formation) or if only cultured cells of the organism of interest remains (it has already died but complete cell death has not occurred).
However, it will take some time before Wilmut's technique is used as an important aid in all manner of biological and biomedical investigations. As forementioned, having to do 277 nuclear transfer just to obtain one living sheep is impractical for most experiments.
How to Cite this Page
"Ian Wilmut and Cloning." 123HelpMe.com. 16 Oct 2019
Need Writing Help?
Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.Check your paper »
- Ian Wilmut and Cloning Before Dolly the cloned sheep made news headlines, the same researchers had only the year before raised seven other sheep from oocytes whose nuclei had been replaced with nuclei from either fetal or embryonic tissue.1 This created a minor stir as this is the "first report to [their] knowledge, of live mammalian offspring following nuclear transfer from an established cell line."1 The implications of this is that they have provided techniques to analyze and modify gene functions in sheep (By providing clones of the same sheep).1 The key to their success is the "serum starvation" that the donor cell undergoes, to force the donor cell into a 'quiescent' state, so that i... [tags: Genetic Engineering Essays]
621 words (1.8 pages)
- Imagine living in a society where the ideology of human cloning is accepted. Envision being able to practice the procedure of taking a genetically identical copy of a biological entity and copying it to create an exact replica of the same genetic makeup. Today, in the field of genetics and developmental biology, the American Medical Association (AMA) has defined cloning as “the production of genetically identical organisms via somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT)”. The idea of cloning surfaced in 1997 when Dr.... [tags: Cloning, Genetics, DNA, Organism]
1266 words (3.6 pages)
- Cloning: Many Questions and Few Answers The birth of Dolly was announced by Ian Wilmut's team from Roslin Institute in February 1997. There is actually nothing radically new in the way Dolly was made, since lower vertebrates, such as frogs, had been cloned in 1968 by John Gurdon of Cambridge University. The term 'clone' originates from the Greek word 'klwn', meaning 'twig', because whenever we divide an overgrown shrub or successfully cultivate a houseplant cutting, cloning has occurred. Nuclear transfer technology was used in which a donor's udder cell, a nucleus with the genome intact, was fused with an unfertilised egg cell.... [tags: Cloning Essays]
369 words (1.1 pages)
- The Reality of Human Cloning As aptly put by Rosa Beddington, the word “clone” has become one of the most emotive of all the terms coined by scientists which have entered popular vocabulary. I shall add another, and that will be the phrase “Dolly the sheep”. The conception of Dolly, the “baby” of scientist Ian Wilmut and his team has opened the possibility of cloning humans. The mention of Dolly brings to average the person, haunting connotations of “future replicas of living megalomaniacs and the resurrected dead”.... [tags: Genetic Engineering Cloning Essays]
671 words (1.9 pages)
- The Benefits of Animal Cloning Put yourself into the body of someone who is need of a vital organ. You are on a waiting list, but who knows when you will receive this precious organ. The doctor says the chances of receiving an organ donor are slim because of your rare genetic make-up. The thought of praying for another human to die, just so you can live, seems selfish, but today, the only way to receive an organ is from the death, or the chance of death, of another human being. Even then, the donor may not match.... [tags: Cloning Argumentative Persuasive Argument]
2001 words (5.7 pages)
- Cloning Should Have Limits "Mary had a little lamb, it fleece was slightly gray. It did not have a father, just some borrowed DNA" (Pence xv, par. 1). According to the article ("Cloning Milestones"), Dr. Hans Spemann visualized cloning back, in 1938 (121). Historical events from 1938 to 2005, provides evidence, that cloning is no longer a vision. Cloning is today's reality. The medical evolution related to the technology of cloning has generated ethical, moral and religious debates for decades.... [tags: Cloning DNA Ethics Stem Cell Research]
1515 words (4.3 pages)
- Cloning Humans Ian Wilmut’s foray into cloning Dolly has proved to be an appetizing entrée to mankind, with the next step being the cloning of endangered species, and eventually, humans. Although his team of researchers had qualified to the public that it is unethical to clone humans1, the very prospect of being able to replicate creatures of our own kind is nevertheless enticing. Think of all the possible benefits that make many scientists prepared to cross those ethical boundaries: Firstly, couples who have tried a long time for identical twins, triplets (or even quintuplets!) may now be able to have them by producing clones from a single embryonic cell.... [tags: Genetic Engineering Cloning Essays]
709 words (2 pages)
- For the last few decades, cloning was a fictitious idea that lay deep within the pages of some sci-fi novels. The very idea that cloning could one day become reality was thought to be a scientific impossibility by many experts but on one exhilarating day, what was thought to be "purely fiction" became reality. That fine day was February 22, 1997. A team from the Roslin Institute which was lead by Dr. Ian Wilmut changed the face of history forever by revealing what looked like an average sheep. That sheep was what was going to be one of the most famous if not the most famous sheep in modern day.... [tags: Biology Cloning]
937 words (2.7 pages)
- A DISCUSSION ON CLONING Have you ever wondered when the scientists of our day will start cloning humans. You might be asking yourself what exactly is cloning. It is a method that involves the production of a group of identical cells or organisms that all derive from a single individual (Grolier 220). Basically, cloning is the copy of the same individuals DNA to another individual. There is no doubt that if humans are cloned many problems involving the technological and ethical sides of this issue will arise and will be virtually impossible to avoid.... [tags: essays research papers]
513 words (1.5 pages)
- Cloning For hundreds of years man has wondered what it would be like to clone human beings. With the idea of cloning comes many different opinions and positions. The idea of creating an army of "super humans" has long been a dream of many people. Others have feared what would happen to the world if cloning were possible and if cloning is morally correct. Overall, religion and ethics play a vital role in the both of these viewpoints and greatly effect many positions on the topic of cloning.... [tags: Essays Papers]
1092 words (3.1 pages)
"At present, cloning from embryonic cells and even old-fashioned animal breeding are still more efficient ways of producing large numbers of genetically altered animals, notes William H. Velander of Virginia Polytechnic Institute.",4 Furthermore it is probable that Wilmut's techniques may not work when used on other species.
In summary, Wilmut has opened many windows of opportunities which may or may not be dead ends. However, his greatest contribution is the proof that it is possible to clone animals from differentiated cells, showing that differentiated cells still retained all the genetic information of embryonic stem cells.
Campbell, K. H. S. et al., Nature 380, 64-66, (1996).
Wilmut, 1. et al, Nature 385, 810-813, (1997)
Gurdon, J.B., Laskey, R.A. & Reeves, O.R. The developmental capacity of nuclei transplanted from keratinised skin cells of adult ftogs. J. Embryol. Exp. Morph. 34,93-112 (1975).
http://www.sciam.com/explorations/030397clone/030397beards.html "A Clone in sheep's clothing" by Tim Beardsley; Scientific American Exploration, March 3,1997