Mine Okubo's Citizen 13660 - Japanese Americans Have No Rights

Mine Okubo's Citizen 13660 - Japanese Americans Have No Rights

Length: 763 words (2.2 double-spaced pages)

Rating: Excellent

Open Document

Essay Preview

More ↓
Mine Okubo's Citizen 13660 - Japanese Americans Have No Rights


“We hold these truths to be self-evident…”(Weiler). As stated in the Declaration of Independence, all American citizens are “endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Right ”(Weiler) website. However, the United States did not hold true to this promise when removing all Nisei, Japanese Americans, from the pacific coast and transporting them to various relocation centers. In these relocation centers, the Nisei, also referred to as evacuees, were burdened to live in harsh environments, secluded from the outside world. The novel Citizen 13660 describes how the United States stripped the Nisei of their unalienable rights nor other rights entitled to United States citizens.

All American citizens are entitled to the right to vote. While in the relocation centers the Nisei had very little contact with the outside world. In an act to solidify and come together as a camp, the evacuees decided they would try to form a type of self-government which would consist of a Center Advisory Council. For some this would be a completely new experience. “The election gave the Issei their first chance to vote along with their citizen offspring” (Okubo 91). The Issei, not being American citizens having emigrated from Japan, did not have the right under the United States Constitution to vote. However, their only chance at voting was shortly taken away when army orders said that only American citizens would be able to vote. Soon however, all forms of voting for the self-government were disassembled when army orders stopped the planning of the Assembly Center government. This goes against Amendment XV of the United States Constitution which state, “The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude” (“The American Presidency”). Also, when taken to the relocation camps, the Nisei lost all representation in the United States government. They no longer had a representative to tell about problems with the camp or to even protest being there. By being relocated they lost their right to vote a representative.

In the United States, it is illegal to hold a person against their will without probable cause yet the Issei and Nisei were both stripped from their homes and brought to a foreign location.

How to Cite this Page

MLA Citation:
"Mine Okubo's Citizen 13660 - Japanese Americans Have No Rights." 123HelpMe.com. 11 Nov 2019
    <https://www.123helpme.com/view.asp?id=24337>.

Need Writing Help?

Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.

Check your paper »

Internment of Japanese Americans: An Imprudent, Contentious Endeavor Essay

- An unavoidable conundrum. To play it safe, or be the enemy. Following the jolting attack on Pearl Harbor, a great deal of Americans believed that the Japanese Americans, also called Nikkei, were untrustworthy and associated with the enemy. Rumors flew that the Nikkei exchanged military information and had obtained secret connections. However, these claims were never brought to light, and to this day simply remain rumors. The U.S. government became suspicious about these accusations and demanded action....   [tags: Pearl Harbor, Japanese Americans]

Research Papers
1470 words (4.2 pages)

The Internment Of Japanese Americans Essay

- World War II was a defining time for the United States. The bombing of Pearl Harbor pulled citizens of the country together. Rosie riveted, victory gardens were grown, and war time propaganda posters hung in shop windows encouraging all to do their part for the war effort. During this time however one subset of the American people were not allowed to support the war effort by traditional means. They were forced to put aside their rights as Americans for what was thought the good of America. The internment of Japanese Americans following Pearl Harbor was triggered by discrimination and terror leading to a complete disregard of personal liberty....   [tags: Japanese American internment, World War II]

Research Papers
1021 words (2.9 pages)

Discrimination and Stereotyping of Japanese-Americans Essay examples

- With the attacks on the United States by terrorists, many Americans have been experiencing feelings of fear, sadness and tremendous anger. Many of Middle-Eastern descent have been experiencing great prejudice and discrimination and are being stereotyped as terrorists. These types of feelings are very prevalent in American society today. Similarly, though not widely as discussed, Japanese-Americans have felt these feelings directed toward them for several generations. Going from the extreme of being herded to internment camps after the surprise attack of Pearl Harbor, to the more commonplace, being stereotyped in the entertainment industry and internet sites, prejudice, discrimination and s...   [tags: Racial Prejudice Japanese-Americans]

Research Papers
1970 words (5.6 pages)

Japanese-Americans and the Constitution Essay

- Japanese-Americans and the Constitution A Review of the Smithsonian's "A More Perfect Union" Website Brief Description and Museum's Purpose "A More Perfect Union: ..." is organized as a chronology of events centering around one basic theme: the confinement of Japanese-Americans to "concentration camps" during WWII. I believe the message being conveyed to the public is one of a major apology to these Japanese-Americans and their descendants for the great injustices forced upon them. In addition, the museum attempts to warn the overall public that since such a violation of the constitution has proven possible in the past, we cannot blindly rely on the fabric of our constitution to prevent...   [tags: Japanese-Americans concentration camps WWII]

Free Essays
1941 words (5.5 pages)

Internment Of Japanese Americans During World War II Essays

- Through the duration of the internment of Japanese Americans during World War II, an organization comprised of university leaders and religious institutions assisted the United States government in the relocation of encamped students. The War Relocation Authority (WRA) put the American Friends Service Committee, a private organization, in charge of relocating students from the concentration camps into colleges and universities across the midwest and east coast United States. The American Friends Service Committee, a private committee founded by Quakers, would go on to organize the National Japanese American Student Relocation Council (abbreviated NJASRC), which took up the task of relocating...   [tags: Japanese American internment, World War II]

Research Papers
2265 words (6.5 pages)

Essay on Japanese American Internment Camps

- Was the internment of Japanese Americans a compulsory act of justice or was it an unwarranted, redundant act of tyranny which breached upon the rights of Japanese Americans. During World War II thousands of Japanese Americans were told by government officials that they had twenty-four hours to pack their things, get rid of any belongings of theirs, and to sell their businesses away for less than retail value. Although many people thought the Japanese American internment was needed to ensure U.S....   [tags: japanese american rights]

Research Papers
1051 words (3 pages)

Japanese Internment Camps: Unlawful Containment of U.S. Citizens Essay

- During WWII Germany was not the only country that was holding their citizens without justifiable cause. Pearl Harbor on O’ahu in Hawaii was attacked by Japanese warplanes on December 7th, 1941 causing a chain reaction that would destroy thousands more lives as the war developed within the United States. The unexpected attack led many Americans to fear that there would be another surprise attack. Leaders pressured President Roosevelt to do something about the Japanese who were living in the United States at the time....   [tags: pearl harbor, japanese-americans, security risk]

Research Papers
1388 words (4 pages)

A More Perfect Union: Japanese Americans and the U.S. Constitution Essay

- A More Perfect Union: Japanese Americans and the U.S. Constitution Introduction Located on the third floor of the National Museum of American History, "A More Perfect Union" documents the forced relocation of thousands of Japanese Americans during World War II. The exhibit focuses on the violation of constitutional rights that occurred during this process. The purposes of this review are as follows: describe the scope, purpose, and message of the exhibit, analyze how that message is organized and communicated, evaluate the effectiveness of the exhibit, and interpret the exhibit as a cultural artifact....   [tags: Japanese Americans World War II]

Research Papers
2301 words (6.6 pages)

Essay about Japanese Americans

- In the late 1860’s Japan was transitioning from feudalism to urbanization and industrialization. It changed from the Tokugawa-Meiji transition as the first Asian industrialized nation. At its peak, the Tokugawa period had the maximum for their required materials with the aid of foreign trade. Domestic commercial activities and limited foreign trade had met the demands for material culture in the Tokugawa period; the Meiji era had changed all of this with its development. Unlike the Tokugawa rulers, the Meiji rulers embraced the English and American notion of a market economy and adopted British and North American forms of free enterprise capitalism....   [tags: Japanese Immigrants]

Research Papers
1087 words (3.1 pages)

Japanese Internment Essay

- Japanese Internment The 1940’s was a turning point for American citizens because World War II was taking place during this time. Not only was America at odds with other countries, but also within its self. America is a huge melting pot full of diverse cultures and people from all nations. People travel from all over the world to the United States of America. These people had one goal in mind, a life of freedom and equal opportunity; or so they thought. The Japanese first began to immigrate to America in the 1860's in Hawaii....   [tags: Internment Japanese Americans History Essays]

Research Papers
3622 words (10.3 pages)

Related Searches

They were no longer referred to by the birth names but after a brief interview given a number which was now the family name. They left behind all of their belonging and had to make “necessary arrangements to have [their] household property stored by the government” (Okubo 19). At no one point did any of these people commit any sort of crime or act of hostility after the events of Pearl Harbor that would even give reasonable suspicion as to espionage. According to Amendment IV of the United States Constitution, “The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated” (“The American Presidency”). However, the United States did not oblige to this right and still kept the Nisei and Issei in the relocation camps with unfrequented visits into regular American towns and cities.

The living conditions that the United States made the Nisei and Issei live in were indecent. One of the stalls in which two people lived consisted of “a two inch layer of dust cover[ing] …the linoleum the color of redwood [that] had been placed over the rough manure-covered boards” (Okubo 35). From being taken from their homes without doing anything to being moved into these slummy locations is not constitutional. The United States is forcing cruel and unusual punishment on innocent people just because of their nationality. In the courts this type of cruel and unusual punishment is unjust just as it is for the government to be asserting it onto innocent bystanders.

The United States government punishes those who violate these rights but what happens when they do it themselves? Nothing happened to the government for its actions. They continued without giving severance to those inflicted. The government looked down upon Hitler when he put thousands of Jewish people in concentration camps. Although the severity is quite different, the United States still acted hypocritically and needs to take responsibility for its previous actions. As the Declaration of Independence states, “all men are created equal” (Weiler, Michael)

Works Cited

Okubo, Mine. Citizen 13660. University of Washington: Seattle: 1983.

“The American Presidency.” 5 Nov 2002
http://gigrolier.com/presidents/es/side/amend.html>.

Weiler, Michael. “US Historical Data Archives.” 5 Nov. 2002
http://w3.one.net/~mweiler/ushda/dec/htm>.
Return to 123HelpMe.com