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Computer are now a days used in pharmaceutical in industries, hospitals and in various departments for drug information, education, evaluation, analysis, medication history and for maintenance of financial records. They have become indispensable in the development of clinical pharmacy, hospital pharmacy and pharmaceutical research. Computers are also useful for patient profile monitoring, medication, database management and material management. It is useful in providing on drug interactions, drug information services and patient counseling.
APPLICATIONS OF COMPUTER IN HOSPITAL PHARMACY:
• As more hospital pharmacies move in the direction of computer access, the profession must identify more clinical applications for computer programming. The use of computers has demonstrated the potential to decrease adverse events, preserve financial and medical resources, and improve patient management.
• The diffusion of computer technology in hospital pharmacy departments was studied by surveying pharmacy directors in a randomly selected sample of 501 hospitals in the United States with at least 100 beds. Pharmacy directors were asked to indicate for which of 17 tasks a computer or memory typewriter was used in the pharmacy department. The time of first adopting computers in the department was compared with the predicted S adoption curve; adoption time was also correlated with characteristics of the hospital, pharmacy, and pharmacy director. Of the 417 respondents, 308 reported use of a memory typewriter or computer in the pharmacy
• The computer is becoming the key factor of hospital pharmacy practice. Enhancement of computer technology is essential to assist the hospital pharmacist in keeping all relevant data in order to provide optimal oversight of drug therapy. As more data become available on drugs, the factor which place the patient at risk for developing reactions to drug, pharmacist must place less reliance on committing all facts to memory and recognize that the computer is a necessary solution to optimizing patient care.
• Handwriting interpretation errors are estimated to cause 9% of all medication errors. Although electronic prescribing (e-Rx) is finally well underway in the United States, it has for several years been the norm in many European countries. As recommended by the federal government and other national health care improvement organizations, the use of electronic prescribing applications in pediatric practice should be encouraged. The Institute of Medicine has recommended that all prescriptions be written electronically by the year 2010. It is estimated that 20% of U.
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• Computer applications are one approach to reducing medication errors.
• Computer-assisted prescription writing represents a new tool in the practice of emergency medicine.
• Computer technology is becoming more universally accepted in hospital pharmacy, and research on the diffusion of innovations suggests that acceptance will continue to increase
APPLICATIONS OF COMPUTER IN PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRIES:
• By effective utilization of computer technology pharmaceutical industries increase production by eliminating non-value-adding steps, reduce costs and improve the quality of drugs.
• Computer not only maintaining the record of raw material but helpful in planning the future production of drugs.
• Reduce costs errors and duplications of documents, the computer system can save data entry for batch order processing, paperwork is completely eliminated in pharmaceutical industries.
• Automated computer-to-computer transmission of data eliminated human errors.
• Computer Compliance is one of the pharmaceutical industries premier compliance service companies.
• Computer Compliance's mission is to help you achieve higher levels of success.
• Our goal is to maximize your benefits and minimize the costs of complying with current Good Manufacturing Practices (cGMP).
• Representing all sizes of computer and information-related businesses, our technology lawyers handle various areas of law relating to the development and use of computer hardware and software as well as online business. Our internet legal services range from domain name protection, privacy issues and on-line publishing matters. For our information technology clients, we offer services for protecting e-business from the development to distribution.
• Pharmaceutical industries having specific software system which are helpful for the work going on in the quality control lab, quality assurance and in production department.
APPLICATIONS OF COMPUTER IN COMMUNITY PHARMACY:
Pharmacists today remain legally responsible for the safe and accurate dispensing of medication, but also have the additional challenge, as integral members of the health care team, to educate, monitor, and care for patients.
So enhancing the pharmacist’s ability by computer technology.
• Today computer technology offers the ability for on-line transmission of perceptions, solving the problem of misinterpreted hand-written or verbal orders.
• Electronic transmission of patient- specific clinical data such as blood glucose levels, blood pressure or cholesterol count would provide pharmacists the necessary tools for direct patient care, but at the same time, allow health care professional to conveniently share this information enhanced patient care.
• Today prescriptions are ordered through community pharmacies but filled in highly automated central locations. Prescriptions are then delivered to the community pharmacy for pick-up. This system of drug delivered offers the speed. Accuracy and efficiency of automation with direct interaction between pharmacists and patient.
APPLICATION OF COMPUTER IN RETAIL PHARMACY:
• A computerize pharmacy service is deal for retail pharmacy administrative and financial benefits of computer technology have been realize through cost reports and budget reduction, and streamlined internal pharmacy operation although most software packages are design for retail pharmacy which are successfully implement for the need of long–term care pharmacy service
• In retail pharmacists will be able to interact electronically with physician offices and access clinical information
• Today's retail pharmacies face tough challenges-surging demand, elusive profit margins, increased competition from the new sources, and all with fewer pharmacists.
• NRx's easy-to-use graphical user interface makes processing new prescriptions and filling refills quick and easy. The HIPAA-compliant system makes processing claims, reporting, managing inventory and maintaining and updating data easy.
• Today's retail pharmacies face tough challenges-surging demand, elusive profit margins, increased competition from the new sources, and all with fewer pharmacists. That's why we created the NRx Pharmacy Management System.QS/1 offers a range of integrated services and systems that can enhance workflow and patient safety in your pharmacy while providing the comprehensive management tools necessary for better profitability.
• The advantage of mechanical tablet counter in retail pharmacy, and the development of method of stock control involving mechanical code reading in retailing have prompted the machine which combine both these function with support from a computer. The wide range of activity of the machine can provide assistance to the pharmacist.
Application of computer academic:
• There is an increasing concern about the future of pharmacy education and the effect on the profession due to the sweeping changes in all spheres of human activity because of globalization. Due to the technological innovations taking place, changes should be plant to enhance the quality of pharmacy education .and the introduction of changes in the educational policies of the pharmacy institutions that provide knowledge and learning to new pharmacy graduates.
• The fundamental aims of an ideal pharmacy education program should be based on professional intellectual, social and personal perspectives .the above said goals can be fulfilled by modern infrastructural facilities like good laborites computerized and digital library, good lab equipment and instrument.
• Information like computerized networks, bioelectronics, biotechnology, computer graphics, diagnostic imaging, computerized drug development and trends in the development of new drugs and drug delivery systems are known by pharmacists in an era of advancing health-care technology.
Application of computer in RESEARCH:
• Using computer helps to alleviate time-consuming and monotonous task of cutting, testing and retrieval of field notes and/ or interview transcripts.
• Computers are a useful aid to those who have to-work-to tight deadline.
• Programs can cop with both multiple codes and over-lapping codes which would be very difficult for the researcher to cop with without the aid of a computer.
• Some software can conduct multiple searches in which more than one code is searched much more quickly and efficiently than by the researcher.
• Programs can combine codes in complex searches.
• Programs can pick out instances of pre-defined categories which have been missed by the researcher during the initial analysis
APPLICATION OF COMPUTER IN HEALTH PROFESSIONS:
• Introduction to Information Technology - Hardware, Software, and Telecommunications: The first three chapters of the first edition on computer literacy, computer hardware and software, and networking and telecommunications have been condensed, keeping only information essential to those interested in computers and health care.
• Security and Privacy in an Electronic Age - Deals with the problems of security and privacy of information in electronic form and on networks. Both general issues of security and privacy in an electronic age and problems specific to health care are discussed. New issues of security and privacy are raised by new laws. The reader is introduced to the Health Information Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA) that provides the first national minimum standards for the privacy of medical information. The book also deals with the effects of the USA Patriot Act on medical privacy.
• An Introduction to Medical Informatics and the Administrative Applications of Computers - The use of technology to organize information in health care. The reader is introduced to the traditional classifications of clinical uses of computers (used in direct patient care); administrative uses of computers used in office administration, financial planning, billing, and scheduling; and the special purpose uses of computers in education and pharmacy. The chapter has an expanded section on the administrative uses of computers discussing the computerization of tasks in the medical office, the electronic medical record, and bucket billing.
• Telemedicine - deals with telemedicine and its rapid expansion. Telecommunications and connectivity have made possible telemedicine, from the simple sharing of patient records or X-rays over networks, to distance exams, to remote operation of medical instruments, to teleconferencing.
• Information Technology in Radiology - digital imaging techniques. Digital images (CT scans, MRIs, PET scans) are more precise than the traditional X-ray.