# Pendulum Investigation

Length: 1305 words (3.7 double-spaced pages)

Rating: Excellent

#### Essay Preview

Pendulum Investigation

Plan

Aim

To investigate how the length of a simple pendulum will affect the
time for a full swing.

Variables

Length

The length of the pendulum has a large effect on the time for a
complete swing. As the pendulum gets longer the time increases. As the
pendulum gets shorter the time decreases.

Air resistance

A big and light pendulum bobble would be affected by a major amount of
air resistance. This might cause the pendulum to move in a different
way.

With a little pendulum bobble there is very small air resistance. This
can easily be observed because it takes an extended time for the
pendulum to stop swinging, so only a small amount of energy is lost on
each swing.

Gravity

The pendulum is motivated by the force of gravity acting on it.

The more gravity the shorter time it will take for a complete swing.

The less gravity the longer it would take for a complete swing

Size of swing

The size of the swing does not have large effect on the time.

Mass

The mass of the pendulum does not affect the time at all.

Prediction
The diagram shows the arcs through which two pendulums swing. The red
one is twice the length of the black one. The black arc is always at a
steeper angle than the red arc, and always above it.

The black pendulum has the most gravitational potential energy at the
top of the swing because it is higher. This means the kinetic energy
and speed through the centre will also be greater.

The steeper the arc the greater the acceleration of the pendulum will
be. A greater acceleration means a shorter time for each swing. The
blue arc has the steepest gradient at the top and is flat when it
reaches the middle. The acceleration of the bobble will decrease from
a maximum at the top of the swing to zero at the centre.

MLA Citation:
"Pendulum Investigation." 123HelpMe.com. 30 Mar 2020
<https://www.123helpme.com/view.asp?id=149659>.

## Need Writing Help?

Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.

## Pendulum Investigation Essay

- Pendulum Investigation Introduction In this investigation, I will try to attempt an experiment that will measure the time taken for a pendulum to oscillate for one complete swing; I will also explore and investigate the numerous variables that might effect the time taken to oscillate. Factors effecting periodic time =============================== The factors, which might affect the time taken for a pendulum to complete one swing, are: 1. The length of string 2....   [tags: Papers]

Free Essays
2453 words (7 pages)

## Essay about An Investigation of the Factors Affecting the Period of a Pendulum

- An Investigation of the Factors Affecting the Period of a Pendulum I could investigate the following factors: * Angle of displacement * Length of string * Pendulum weight I am going to investigate and see if varying the length of string will affect the period of the pendulum. My prediction is: The longer the string the longer the period. The period will be longer as the pendulum has farther to travel. My theory is demonstrated below. Pendulum A has a shorter string....   [tags: Papers]

Free Essays
588 words (1.7 pages)

## Simple Pendulum Essay

- Name: ISMAILA LUKMON CEG no: 08036768 Aim: Measuring a simple pendulum Introduction: A simple pendulum is defined as an object that has a small mass, also known as the pendulum bob, which is suspended from a wire or string of negligible mass. When displaced, a pendulum will oscillate around its equilibrium point due to momentum in balance with the restoring force of gravity. There are many examples of pendulums around us. A swing on which a child can ride. A plumb line used by builders to obtain a true vertical measurement....   [tags: Pendulum, Oscillation, Harmonic oscillator]

Research Papers
1058 words (3 pages)

## Essay on Investigating Factors that Affect the Swinging Of a Pendulum

- Investigating Factors that Affect the Swinging Of a Pendulum Aim Our aim is to find out whether changing the variables of the swinging pendulum affects the speed. Preliminary Work In order to find out which variable/s affect the swinging of a pendulum, I need to test all the variables available. There are three variables we will be investigating: * The length of the string * The mass of the pendulum * The angle from which the pendulum is swung For each experiment, I will change the length/mass/angle five times, and repeat each length/mass/angle just once....   [tags: Papers]

Free Essays
1958 words (5.6 pages)

## Factors that Affect the Period of a Pendulum Essay example

- Factors that Affect the Period of a Pendulum Purpose: To determine the factor(s) that affect the period of a pendulum. Hypothesis: The factors that I think will affect the period of the pendulum are the displacement and the suspended mass because if the mass of the bob is a lot than it will take more force for the pendulum to swing and if there's a high displacement it will give the pendulum more energy to complete the cycle. Materials: stopwatch 100, 200, and a 500g bob protractor meter stick string Procedures: 1....   [tags: Papers]

Free Essays
578 words (1.7 pages)

## Essay The Effect Length Has on a Pendulum's Period

- The Effect Length Has on a Pendulum's Period Prediction: I predict that the shorter the length of string, the shorter the time it takes for the pendulum to complete one period. The longer the length of the string, the longer the time it will take to complete one period. Equipment needed for experiment: -Clamp -Stopwatch -Bob/Ball -Metre ruler -String Obtaining the results: I will be measuring the length of the string in 10s, so that I can obtain a wider range of results....   [tags: Papers]

Free Essays
507 words (1.4 pages)

## Effect Of Pendulum Essays

- The Problem Does the angle of a pendulum increase or decrease its swings per minute and what is the effect of the angle of release of the pendulum on it’s swings per minute. A pendulum is something hanging from a string or chain that when released, swings back and forth because of gravity ( “Academy Pendulums”). The swinging is caused by air resistance going in the opposite direction as the pendulum, making it go back and forth. A bob is the weight at the bottom of the pendulum. When a pendulum is released, it is pulled downward by gravity and accelerates 9.8 meters per second as it falls....   [tags: Pendulum, Angle, Galileo Galilei, Measurement]

Research Papers
2003 words (5.7 pages)

## The Pit and the Pendulum Essay

- The Pit and the Pendulum "The place where you die is where you become young again." The accused in "The Pit and the Pendulum" is obviously being persecuted. For what religion or practice we do not know. For what crime it is not said. The prisoner does not even question his guilt or innocence. The accused in this story, to whom Poe does not give a name, is subjected to three life threatening situations. Poe, along with other English Romantics believed that being born was actually coming to the end of another existence....   [tags: Pit and the Pendulum Essays]

Free Essays
698 words (2 pages)

## Pendulum Conclusion Essay

- Research and Background A pendulum is an object hanging from a fixed point with a mass that swings back and forth under the influence of gravity. Sometimes this mass is called a bob, as it bobs up and down as it swings side to side. Pendulums are acted upon by three main forces: gravity, tension, and air resistance. While gravity always pulls down on the bob, tension pulls upward towards the pivot point for the string on the rod, or where the string pivots. However, both the amount and the direction of the pendulum’s tension changes as it swings....   [tags: Energy, Pendulum, Kinetic energy, Angle]

Research Papers
1822 words (5.2 pages)

## The Pit and the Pendulum by Edgar Allan Poe Essay

- In Edgar Allan Poe’s short story “The Pit and the Pendulum,” written 1843, and “using the anguish of imminent death as the means of causing the nerves to quiver” (Edgar Allan Poe, 2015), he takes the reader into the mind of a man who is tortured by various means by some unknown person or persons for reasons that are not given. The themes of death and time are portrayed strongly in this story and produce a sense of anxiety and uncertainty. “The first- person narration, in which the ‘I’ remains unnamed, causes the reader to identify with the protagonist” (Myers 1922)....   [tags: Pit and the Pendulum Essays]

Research Papers
2010 words (5.7 pages)

### Popular Essays

For these reasons, I predict as the string gets longer the time per
swing will get longer.
Equipment List
string, blue-tack, long pin, stopwatch, measuring tape, electronic
scale

Risks and precautions

There are no risks or precautions involved in this experiment

Method

[IMAGE]

The string is secured between two small blocks of wood. This ensures
that the cotton swings from a single fixed point. A small ball of
blue-tack is attached to the bottom end of the cotton and the length
is adjusted by pulling the cotton through the two blocks. Gravity may
be considered to act through the centre of gravity of the bobble. For
this reason the length of the cotton is measured from the wooden
blocks to the centre of the bobble.

Timings for twenty complete swings are started and stopped as the
pendulum passes through the mid-point. A long pin is set up at the
mid-point, at right angles to the plane of swing, to provide an
accurate reference point. This is achieved by positioning yourself so
that you are looking directly along the line of the pin. As the cotton
passes the point the stopwatch is started and counting is started at
"0". The pendulum will swing to one side, and then back through the
centre and to the other side. When it passes the centre again "1" is
counted for the first complete swing. In the same manner this process
is repeated twenty complete swings.

Each process is repeated three times. It is important to ensure that
the pendulum is swinging in a single plane before measurements are
started. The size of swing must be kept small and accurate.

Variable table

Dependent Variable

value

how measured

Time for one complete swing
(Period)

Time for 20 swings.
3 repeats for each length

digital stopwatch

Independent Variable

length

5,10,20- 180cm in 20cm steps

ruler

Control Variables

size of swing

small (10Â° or less)

protractor

mass

10g

electronic balance

air resistance

very small

n/a

gravity

10 N/kg

Trial data

1. Altering the length
the length was altered by a measurement of 20 cm. The time increased
as the length increased but by a factor of 1.4 approximately.

length
(cm)

mass
(g)

displacement
(cm)

time (20 swings)
(seconds)

20

10

10

18.10

40

10

10

25.41

2. Altering the mass of the bob

The mass was altered by a measurement of 20 grams. This had a small
effect on the time.

length
(cm)

mass
(g)

displacement
(cm)

time (20 swings)
(seconds)

60

5

10

31.02

60

25

10

31.16

3. Altering the displacement of swing
the size of the swing was changed by a measurement of 20 cm and this
had little effect on the time.

length
(cm)

mass
(g)

displacement
(cm)

time (20 swings)
(seconds)

60

10

10

31.05

60

10

20

31.39

From the trial data I found the only variable that made a major
difference was the length of the pendulum.

Results
-------

Pendulum

length
(cm)

length
(âˆšcm)

Number
of swings

Timings

1st 2nd 3rd

Average time

average time
1 swing
(sec)

5

2.24

20

9.10

8.77

9.36

9.07

0.45

10

3.16

20

12.86

12.79

12.82

12.82

0.64

20

4.47

20

18.15

18.13

18.20

18.16

0.91

40

6.32

20

25.60

25.32

25.87

25.29

1.26

60

7.75

20

31.17

31.21

31.12

31.16

1.58

80

8.94

20

35.90

35.88

35.95

35.91

1.79

100

10.00

20

40.12

40.15

40.07

40.11

2.00

120

10.95

20

43.82

43.90

43.86

43.86

2.19

140

11.83

20

47.92

47.97

47.98

47.95

2.39

160

12.65

20

50.15

50.10

50.10

50.11

2.50

180

13.41

20

53.39

50.44

50.45

52.42

2.62

Control variables
mass of bobble = 10g
size of each swing kept small and accurate (max displacement
approximately 10cm.

Analysis and Conclusions

Graph1 shows that the time for each swing increases as the length
increases and the gradient of the graph decreases as the length
increases.

Graph2 shows each swing plotted against the square-root of the length.
This gives a straight line graph through the origin.

Using the equation: Y=mx (used for straight line graphs through the

The gradient 'm' measured = 2.5Ã·13.5 = 0.19

If Â‘TÂ’ is the time for one swing in seconds, and Â‘LÂ’ is the length in
centimeters, the equation for the line is written as:

T = 0.19âˆšL

Conclusions

The time for one complete swing is proportional to the square root of
the length. All the points for Graph2 lie on a straight line so the
conclusion is very reliable over this range.

It seems likely that the same trend would continue if the length was
extended. Shorter lengths look like they would also follow the same
pattern despite the fact that it gets more difficult to take the
measurements as the time gets shorter. For very short lengths the
trend might not continue and would be extremely difficult to measure.

Evaluation

Measuring the length
A difficult part of measuring the length is make your mind up where
the centre of the bobble is. The uncertainty in determining this
measurement is probably about 1-2 mm. . The total error in measuring
the longest and shortest length is not likely to be more than a
millimeter.

Adjusting the length of the pendulum was time consuming but was not a
problem in the path of accuracy. The string could be accurately pulled
through the wooden blocks to the required lengths.

Measuring the time

The stopwatch I used, measures to one hundredth of a second even
though the overall accuracy of the time measurements are so accurate.
The human reaction time to start and stop the watch roughly cancel
each other out as the same event is being observed, and reacted to in
the same way, each time. Errors are produced by any variability in the
reaction time of the individual which could be affected by various
things.

The even trend in the graph specifies that the results are accurate
and dependable. There are no irregular results to be seen in the trend
of the graph.

Reliability

No significant problems or difficulties were met when performing this
investigation. The accuracy and reliability of the results and
conclusions are incredibly good. From the accuracy method applied and
for the range of values tested, it is quite understandable that the
time for a simple pendulum takes for a complete swing is proportional
to the square-root of the length.

Improvements

The procedure used was simple and straightforward and no difficulties
were encountered. A small improvement could be made regarding the
measuring of the length pendulum. A piece of wood, could be placed
level with the point of suspension, and a set square could be placed
along the flat side and just touching the bottom of the pendulum. This
distance could then be measured extra accurately than trying to guess
where the middle of the bobble is.

More attempts could be taken but I do not think it is necessary or
would make a significant difference to the morals of the conclusion.

Longer lengths could be tried, up to whatever lengths desired. If the
pendulum gets very long a stronger string will be needed and a bobble
in ratio.

Extending the investigation

Extending the investigation would mean extend the range of lengths
tested and observing if the same trend continues. Add more to the
extension