Neutralisation of Stomach Acid Investigation

Neutralisation of Stomach Acid Investigation

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Neutralisation of Stomach Acid Investigation


Aim:
To find which tablets are best for neutralising excess stomach acid.

Introduction:

Prediction:

I predict that the indigestion tablet with the most carbonates will
need the most acids for it to go neutral. The tablets with the least
carbonates will need the least amount of acid for it to go neutral. So
the best cure for neutralising a build up of stomach I would think
would be the tablets with the least amount of carbonates because if
you had a liittle amount of stomach acid and you took a tablet with
lots of carbonates instead of making it neutral it would make yr
stomach alkaline as with the least amount of carbons it would make
your stomach more neutral.

Research on indigestion tablets
The indigestion tablets are used for curing acid indigestion.
Heartburn and acid indigestion is discomfort in the upper digestive
tract. It can affect all ages but is common in adults over 60 years
old. The symptoms could be mistaken for a heart attack or a heart
attack could be mistaken for indigestion. Symptoms of this malady
include: belching or slight regurgitation of stomach contents into the
mouth, giving an acid taste, burning or uncomfortable feeling in the
chest, difficulty swallowing, mild abdominal pain or bloating, and
occasional nausea or vomiting. This unpleasant condition can be
avoided by refraining from smoking, overindulging in food and,
especially, alcohol. Other measures include decreasing fat in the
diet, not wearing tight clothing, and trimming down if you are
overweight. Neutralising the excess hydrochloric acid in the stomach
can treat acid indigestion. Adding a base or a carbonate, producing
water, which is not a problem, usually does this.

Pulmonary work

· Before I started to do the real experiment, I decided that it would
be wise to do a preliminary experiment to check that my original
parameters were acceptable.. During this primary period of
experimentation, I ran lots of tests to find out how much methyl

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orange or indigestion tablets to use. At first, we thought that around
5-20 drops of methyl orange would be best so we tested it and found
that 10 drops would be best because 20 drops took longer to get
results. I also had to decide on the amount of indigestion tablets to
use and to make a fair test. We decided to just use one of the tablets
from the different brands and do the test three times on each of one
of the tablets. The indigestion tablet brands were; Andrews, remmie
spearmint, peppermint antacid, and bisodol. Also we had to decide on
how strong the molar would be to suit the experiment. 2molar was most
suitable as it was the strongest and because the concentration was any
higher, it would take a smaller amount to neutralise the solution, and
if there were a lower concentration, then it would take more.

Indicators:

We had to find a suitable indicator. Acid - Base indicators (also
known as pH indicators) are substances which change colour with pH.
They are usually weak acids or bases dissolved in water.
I had several different indicators to choose from such as;

Universal Indicator:
A universal indicator is a solution, which undergoes several colour,
changes over a wide range of PHS. The colour is used to "indicate" pH
directly. Universal indicators are usually mixtures of several
indicators.
Bromothymol Blue:
Bromothymol blue changes from one colour to another as the pH of the
solution it is in is altered. Bromothymol blue is yellow in acidic
solutions and blue in basic solutions.
Methyl Orange:
Chemists use methyl orange as an indicator in the titration of weak
bases with strong acids.
Litmus:
Litmus is a substance that is commonly used in chemistry to indicate
whether a solution is an acid or a base. It comes in an acidic form,
which is red, and a basic form, which is blue. Litmus may be dissolved
in water or alcohol to make an indicating solution. Because litmus is
an intensely coloured substance, only a few drops of litmus indicator
need to be added to a solution to tell whether it is acidic or basic.

I decided that methyl orange would be the best indicator solution to
use for my experiment. At first I thought that universal indicator
would be best, because of its wide range of colours, each one
indicating a different pH level. However, the universal indicator is
quite weak and would not function as well as the other indicators in
this experiment. I chose methyl orange because that even though the
range of pH levels is not very broad, same as bromothyl blue, methyl
orange was available to me and the my teacher thought it was most
suitable.

Apparatus

· Burette-Used to drip (stomach acid) accurately into the mixture. A
burette was used because it is extremely accurate and can hold up to
50ml of liquid, and is accurate to a tenth of a millilitre for example
25.0ml. This was cleaned to avoid contaminating the hydrochloric acid.

· Indigestion tablets-to test how much hydrochloric acid they can
neutralise

· Conical flask

· Pester and mortar-to crush up indigestion tablets

· Menthol orange

· Clamp-To hold burette steady above beaker.

· Top-pan balance to accurately measure out the mass of the tablets.
This can be done to within one hundredth of a gram, eg25.00g.

· Hydrochloric Acid this was used to represent stomach acid, as more
practical and safe to use than the real thing. The concentration of
was 2.0 mol per bottle

Variables:

· Mass of Indigestion tablet:

Instead of using a certain amount of tablet we decided to use 1 tablet
from

Each brand 3 times:

· Concentration of Hydrochloric acid
we needed to have the concentration as close to that of real stomach
acid as possible.

· Room Temperature
This is important because if the room temperature was much higher or
lower in one session than in another, the experiment would have been
affected because a higher temperature would increase the energy that
the particles of any of the chemicals would have more energy. So we
tried to complete the test in a hour's lesson

Safe test:

In the experiment to make it as safe as possible, firstly will work on
a clean area in the classroom with all the stalls and bags under desks
and objects moved. Secondly we shall wear goggles to protect our eyes
from the acids and tie any loose hair back. Also make sure all the
apparatus is clean and there is no sign of damage. Be careful not to
spill anything harmful or irritant and clean up thoroughly any
spillages.

Fair test:

To get accurate and reliable results, we will do 3 tests for each
tablet and do an average as well. We will make sure all the
measurements are precise and try and keep it the same temperature.
Also to keep the hydrochloric acid at 2molar, using the same bottle.

Diagram:

Method:
The apparatus was set up as shown in the diagram above. I crushed one
tablet in the pestle and mortar and placed it into clean 100ml beaker.
I added 10 drops of methyl orange, using a pipette. Then I filled the
burette with exactly 50.0ml of hydrochloric acid using a funnel to
avoid any spillage. It needed to be filled exactly to 50.0ml, to get
an accurate reading. I placed the beaker under the burette and
carefully let the hydrochloric acid drip down into the solution. I
continued to do this in 1ml stages until the solution turned pinkie
red, to indicate neutrality of the solution. We measured how many 1ml
drips it needed for it to go neutral. This was repeated 3 times for
each of the different brand tablets so we could find the average of
each brand and it would, make it more fair. The results were noted in
a table.

:

Results:
All results are stated using1 tablet, and 10 drops of methyl orange to
form a solution.

Andrews:

1. 12ml

2. 10ml

3. 15ml

Average: 12.3'ml

Remmie peppermint:

1. 16ml

2. 10ml

3. 15ml

Average: 13.6'ml

Peppermint antacid tablets:

1. 12ml

2. 14ml

3. 13ml

Average: 13ml

Bisodol:

1. 10ml

2. 11ml

3. 13ml

Average: 11.3'ml

Conclusion:

Looking back on my results, I think that the best indigestion tablet
would be remmie peppermint because it has the highest average, which
indicates the most carbonates, the reaction, which will have taken
place, would be

NaHCO3+HC1+H20+C02



Evaluation:
I believe that my results were quite accurate and I was pleased to see
that the prediction and the conclusion matched. However, there are
several things that I would want to change, had I the chance to repeat
the experiment.. The next time, I would ensure that each test is
repeated up to 5 times, to be sure of spotting anomalous results, and
getting as accurate as possible as I felt that it was obvious from my
results that three was not enough.

My results weren't that consistent and were quite vague also to
improve the experiment, I would make sure that all the tests were
carried out during one lesson, as it would ensure that all the
chemicals were always identical. However, altogether, I believe that
the experiment was a success.
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